Real Name: Kyle Richmond
Identity/Class: Human mutate technology user
Occupation: Adventurer, CEO of Richmond Enterprises
Group Membership: Defenders
(Atlas (Eric Josten), Blazing Skull (Mark Todd), Clea,
Colossus (Peter Rasputin), Dr. Strange (Stephen Strange),
Gargoyle (Isaac Christians),
the Duck, Hulk (Bruce Banner), Junta, Krang, Nighthawk
Paladin, Power Man (Luke Cage),
Guardian/Starlight (Tania Belinsky), She-Hulk (Jennifer
Walters), Silver Surfer,
of Satan, Sub-Mariner, Valkyrie
(Samantha Parrington), Yellowjacket (Hank Pym)), Fearsome Four
(Frankenstein’s Monster, Howard the Duck, She-Hulk (Jennifer Walters);
formerly Initiative (Ant-Man (Eric O'Grady), Bengal, Cloud-9, Constrictor, Crusader, Diamondback (Rachel Leighton), Dragon Lord, Gargoyle (Isaac Christians), Geiger, Geldoff, Hardball, Hulkling (Earth-A), Justice (Vance Astrovik), Komodo, Melee, Physique, Red 9, Stature, Stingray, Taskmaster, Thor Girl (Skrull imposter), Trauma, Triathlon, War Machine (Jim Rhodes), Yellowjacket (Hank Pym), others), Squadron Sinister (Dr. Spectrum (Alice Nugent), Hyperion (Zhib Ran), Speed Demon (James Sanders)), Secret Avengers (Asp, Black Mamba, Black Panther (T'Challa), Cable, Luke Cage, Captain America (Steve Rogers), Cloak, Dagger, Daredevil (Danny Rand), Debrii, Diamondback (Rachel Leighton), Falcon, Firebird, Goliath (Bill Foster), Hawkeye (Kate Bishop), Hercules, Hulkling, Human Torch (Johnny Storm), Invisible Woman, Justice (Vance Astrovik), Living Lightning, Patriot (Eli Bradley), Punisher (Frank Castle), Monica Rambeau, Silhouette, Speed, Spider-Man (Peter Parker), Spider-Woman (Jessica Drew), Aaron Stack, Stature, Stingray, Storm, Tigra, Timeslip, Triathlon, Ultragirl, Vision, Wiccan), Thunderbolts (Atlas (Erik Josten), Joystick, Photon (Genis-Vell), Radioactive Man, Songbird, Speed Demon), Squadron Sinister (Dr. Spectrum (Kenji Obatu), Dr. Spectrum (Billy Roberts), Hyperion (construct), Whizzer (James Sanders))
Affiliations: Agent Fritch,
and Rodian, Aragorn,
Ardina, Michael Barnett, Beast (Hank McCoy),
Bi-Beast, Black Panther (T'Challa), Luann
Bloom, H. Howard Bradley,
Cable, Danielle Cage, Vera
Cantor, Captain America (Steve Rogers), Captain Marvel
(Mar-Vell), Ivan Carmichael,
(Al Gentle, Philip
LeGuin, Theodore Kroeber, Georgia Orr, Ursula
Clark, Clea, Cloak,
Constrictor, Daredevil (Matt Murdock), Davies, Deathlok (Larry
for a Day" (Black Goliath, Captain Marvel (Mar-Vell), Captain
Ultra, Falcon, Hercules, Iron Fist (Daniel Rand), Jack of Hearts,
Marvel Man (Wendell Vaughn), Ms. Marvel (Carol Danvers), Nova (Richard
Rider), Paladin, Polaris, Prowler (Hobie Brown),
of Satan, Stingray,
Torpedo, White Tiger (Hector Ayala)), Defenders (Krang, Nighthawk
(Joaquin Pennysworth), She-Hulk, Son of Satan; alternate
Dr. Strange, Dizzy
the Hun, Dollar
Eternity, Fantastic Four (Human Torch (Johnny Storm), Invisible Woman,
Mister Fantastic, Thing), Commissioner
Fred the policeman, Nick Fury,
Ginny, Grandmaster, Amber
Goliath (Bill Foster), Guardians of the Galaxy (Vance Astro,
Charlie-27, Martinex, Starhawk, Yondu), Henry Peter Gyrich,
Haverhill, Hawkeye (Clint Barton), Hela,
Dr. Hildebrant, Happy Hogan,
Harold Holliman, In-Betweener, Iron Man (Tony Stark),
Dr. Kort, Krang, Carlotta
of the Mental Arts (Christopher
Objective Pamela), Mighty Avengers (Ares, Black Widow
(Natasha Romanova), Ms. Marvel (Carol Danvers),
Sentry, Wasp, Wonder Man), Millie,
Moon Knight, Ms. Marvel (Carol Danvers), Namorita,
Norriss, Omega the Unknown, Papa
and Malicia Parrington,
Perkins, Power Man (Luke Cage), Professor X, Red
Raven (Dania), Ron
Rice, Irma Roberts, Milton
Rosenblum, Detective Ross,
of Satan, Spider-Man (Peter Parker),
Starr, Dr. Herschel Thatcher,
Teen Brigade (Barnell Bohusk, Miss America Chavez, Angel Salvadore,
Ultimate Nullifier), Thing, Becky Thomas,
Thor, Miss Tolliver, Vashti, Mr. Verderkor,
Welby, Ruth Wilkins,
James Wynter, Xhoohx,
Yellowjacket (Hank Pym), Larry Young/Jack Truman, Zeus;
Enemies: AIM, Arcade, Alvarado,
of Eternity (Sai Anand, Socrates Cavropolis, Ivan), Badoon,
of the Bland (Black
the Hun), Behemoth
(Marcus Daniels), Bloodraven
Cult, Brotherhood of Evil Mutants (Alpha
the Ultimate Mutant, Blob, Lorelei,
Magneto, Mastermind (Jason Wyngarde), Unus),
Warden Ivan Carmichael,
Mind Control Movement (Marie),
Cheer Chadwick, Chronarch,
for Free Emigration, Death, Death-Stalker,,
Dr. Doom (Kristoff Vernard),
Cult of the Harvester of Eyes (Agent
of Fortune, Balthazar,
Sea Urchin, Tiger
(Batroc the Leaper, Beetle (Abner Jenkins), Blob, Boomerang, Electro
(Max Dillon), Joe
the Gorilla, Leap-Frog,
(android), Shocker (Herman Schultz), Toad, Whirlwind), Dragon Man, Eelar,
of Evil (Cobalt
Man (Ralph Roberts), Egghead,
Fury LMD, Gargantus, Grandmaster, Graviton, Hal,
the Mystic, Gorilla-Man
(Arthur Nagan), Shrunken
Jo-Jo and Weepin' Willie, Kang,
Man/Looter, MODOK, Moonstone (Karla Sofen),
the Cunning, Porcupine (Alex Gentry),
Mover's Minions (Dumog,
the Man-Slayer, Korvac,
Prime Mover, “Screechy”,
Men, Recorder, Red
of the Serpent (Supreme
Serpent (JC Pennysworth)), Squadron
Sinister (Dr. Spectrum (Kenji Obatu), Dr.
Spectrum (Billy Roberts), Hyperion (construct), Whizzer
(James Sanders)), Thog,
Thunderbolts (Atlas (Erik Josten), Baron Helmut Zemo, Blizzard (Donnie
Gill), Fixer (Norbert Ebersol),
MACH-IV, Radioactive Man, Songbird, Swordsman (Andreas Strucker)),
Wrecking Crew (Bulldozer, Piledriver, Thunderball, Wrecker (Dirk
Young Masters (Egghead, Executioner (Danny Dubois), Radioactive Kid),
Known Relatives: Arthur Richmond (father, deceased), Penelope Richmond (mother, deceased)
Aliases: Bird-Nose, Bird-Man, Feather-Face (names used by Hulk), Blue-Bird (name used by Hellcat), Beaky (name used by Thing), John Doe
Base of Operations: New York City, USA;
formerly Richmond Riding Academy, upstate New York
First Appearance: Avengers I#69 (October, 1969)
Powers/Abilities: Through alchemical means (a potion potentially originated by the Grandmaster), Nighthawk's strength doubles at night, or while in outer space. He has trained and honed his body to pristine fitness, greatly increasing his own strength, agility, and endurance, which has increased his night enhancements proportionately. Nighthawk has often employed technological weapons in combat, including a Night-plane (with strong magnetic capabilities), numerous jetpacks (some of which are capable of propelling Nighthawk underwater), a needle that induces dizziness, exploding pellets, infrared and zooming lenses, navigational radar, a laser cannon, titanium talons, and shielded wings. Recently, Nighthawk experienced a steady increase in his powers, developing more strength and enhanced senses, due to a resurgence of the Wellspring of Universal Power. These powers have presumably faded.
For a time, Nighthawk possessed a “second-sight” that allowed him to see the actions of the wicked before they committed the actions. Nighthawk wears a ring that allows him to assemble members of the Defenders at will; this ring was enchanted by Gaea. Nighthawk's life force was once empowered by the surrendered life forces of his friends. At a time when his life force faltered, Nighthawk could only walk at night and was paralyzed during the day.
(Defenders I#32 (fb)) - Kyle Richmond was born to wealthy parents and was brought up mostly by his governess, his dad being frequently absent. Kyle's mom died in an accident and Kyle's father sent him to a boarding school. On his first day, he cried, and fought the other boys for laughing at him. Kyle grew older there, frequently getting into trouble. One day the principal slapped Kyle for being arrogant, and Kyle hit the principal back, knowing that the principal could not take action because of Kyle's family name.
(Defenders I#32 (fb)/Marvel Team-Up I#101 (fb) - BTS) - Due to his family money, he got into Grayburn College and became involved with Mindy Williams, and she helped him focus on school, though it overwhelmed him. He got caught in a drunk-driving accident that left Mindy dead, and was kicked out of school, unwilling to return. Kyle, while mostly anti-social, used some experimental drugs while in college. Later, Kyle heard that Grayburn University shut down due to lack of funds and an administrative scandal.
(Defenders I#32 (fb)) - He attempted to join the army, but was turned down due to a heart murmur, and on the same day Kyle received word that his father had been killed in a plane crash, leaving multi-million dollar company, Richmond Enterprises, to Kyle. Kyle turned to finding a cure to his heart murmur and physically training himself.
(Defenders I#21 (fb) - BTS) - Richmond dated fashion model Trixie Starr for a time, but they eventually grew apart.
(Avengers I#70 (fb) - BTS/ Daredevil I#62 (fb)) - When the Grandmaster entered a competition with Kang the Conqueror over the fate of the planet, he needed human counterparts to battle for him against Kang's selected counterparts, the Avengers. He looked back in time and altered the lives of four men to become super-villains. Kyle Richmond, while tinkering in his lab, came across an old volume on alchemy. He concocted a serum that, when drunk, would double his strength at night. He employed a regimen of polo, gymnastics, and other sports to strengthen his natural abilities, then became Nighthawk. The Grandmaster helped Nighthawk create exploding pellets and a giant ship with magnetic capabilities. Hyperion, Doctor Spectrum, and the Whizzer were also created and joined Nighthawk as the Squadron Sinister.
(Avengers I#69) - Astral images of the Squadron were revealed to the Avengers.
(Avengers I#70) - Nighthawk battled Captain America in an agile battle on the Statue of Liberty while his ship lifted the Statue into the air. Determined to destroy the Statue with an explosive, Nighthawk's usage of agility, strength, weapons, and traps weren't enough to defeat Captain America. The other Squadron members were also defeated.
(Avengers I#71 - BTS) - Kang was defeated by the Avengers and the Grandmaster departed.
(Daredevil I#62) - Seeking a rush, Nighthawk went out to make a name for himself as a hero. He lured Daredevil to a hold-up that he'd gotten word of. When Daredevil moved to stop crooks Jo-Jo and Weepin' Willie, Nighthawk moved in, pricked Daredevil with a pin that caused dizziness, then defeated the crooks himself, later letting the crooks go. Seeking to develop a fan following that he could later use for political power, Nighthawk continued with his heroic efforts over the following days, becoming more popular than Daredevil. Daredevil, having discovered the crooks had been let go, soon posed as a thief and lured Nighthawk into admitting his ill intentions into a microphone and the public overheard. His plans ruined, Nighthawk escaped into the subway tunnels.
(Last Defenders#5 (fb)) - After buying parts for his Hawk-Plane from a fence, Richmond was driving home when he hit a man in the street. Seeing the man was bloodied but alive, he rushed from the scene before he could get caught.
(Defenders I#13 (fb)) - Nighthawk was summoned by the Squadron Sinister and was surprised to see them alive and together. Hyperion revealed their new ally, Nebulon, to whom they'd sold the Earth. Forced to listen against his will, Nighthawk learned of their plan to melt the polar ice caps with a giant laser. He sought to warn the Avengers, only to learn that Nebulon had rendered him invisible near those heroes. Hearing of the Defenders, Nighthawk sought them out.
(Defenders I#12) - Nighthawk went to Strange's mansion, where Wong informed him Strange was not there.
(Defenders I#13) - A few hours later, Nighthawk burst in on Strange and was attacked briefly by Hulk and Valkyrie. After he explained his purpose there, the Defenders agreed to help, but Nighthawk found himself transported to the ice caps and held in a force bubble by Nebulon. The Defenders, joined by Namor, attacked and defeated the Squadron, but Nebulon defeated them.
(Defenders I#14) - Set adrift with the Defenders in space, Nighthawk and the heroes returned to Earth, battled Nebulon's Frozen Man, then saw Nebulon reverted to his monstrous alien form. Nighthawk turned the laser cannon on Nebulon and the alien imploded, taking the other three Squadroners with him. Nighthawk almost died in the laser cannon's explosion, but the Defenders surrendered portions of their life forces so he could live. Nighthawk asked to join the team.
(Defenders I#15) - Nighthawk, in his new costume equipped with a jet-pack (he realized the impracticality of the Hawk-plane), was given a tour of the mansion. Valkyrie planned to leave the team and was concerned about her winged horse, so Nighthawk called his employee Pennysworth and ordered him to purchase a secluded riding academy. The Defenders traveled to the Carlsbad Mountains at the request of Professor X, telepathic leader of the X-Men, and met the Hulk there so they could fight against the Brotherhood of Evil Mutants. After battling a monster that turned out to be an illusion, they were held in a magnetic field by Magneto, the Brotherhood's leader, and listened to his plot to rule the world through his new creation, Alpha, the Ultimate Mutant. Professor X helped the heroes escape and Nighthawk and Professor X were held under the sway of the siren Lorelei until the Professor activated Nighthawk's jetpack manually and Nighthawk crashed into Lorelei. Alpha then awakened.
(Defenders I#16) - After unsuccessfully battling Alpha, the villains were teleported away and Alpha trapped the Defenders and Professor X in a sealed mountain, leaving the heroes to dig themselves out. The heroes tracked the villains to the United Nations building, which was hovering in the air. While trying to battle Alpha again, Nighthawk was given a severe case of vertigo by the mutant. Soon Alpha realized who the true villains were and reduced the Brotherhood to infancy before leaving Earth completely.
(Giant-Size Defenders#2) - Nighthawk accompanied the Defenders and the Son of Satan into Hell to rescue Hulk from Asmodeus. While there, Nighthawk was beset by demonic monks trying to convince him that his attempts at resurrection were doomed to fail.
(Defenders I#17 (fb) - BTS) - Nighthawk had an entire headquarters built for the team at his riding academy in upstate New York, including such expenses as an Adamantium chair for the Hulk.
(Defenders I#17) - Nighthawk, while showing his teammates the new headquarters, tried riding Aragorn. He kissed the Valkyrie on the lips before she departed. After the Hulk departed as well, Nighthawk grew frustrated at the team dissolving already. He received a call from Pennysworth and learned that the Wrecking Crew had destroyed two of Richmond Enterprises buildings in New York. Investigating a third building, Strange and Nighthawk were attacked by Power Man, who'd been hired by Pennysworth to defend the building, and Nighthawk held his own. Soon the Wrecking Crew attacked.
(Defenders I#18) - After the Wrecking Crew broke through Dr. Strange's mystic wall, Nighthawk attacked Piledriver with a piece of heavy machinery, which Bulldozer soon broke. After hearing the Wrecking Crew's origins, Dr. Strange was knocked out by an accidental blow from the Hulk. Nighthawk evaded blows from the Wrecker until Thunderball cried out about a missing gamma bomb.
(Defenders I#19) - Thunderball explained that he'd worked at Richmond Enterprises and had his gamma bomb stolen, so the Wrecking Crew had been trying to find the bomb again. Nighthawk and his allies soon tracked down the Crew and Nighthawk defeated Bulldozer by strapping his jet-pack to Bulldozer's back and letting the villain crash. Hulk, as Bruce Banner, defused the bomb. The Defenders were briefly detained by Fred the policeman.
(Defenders I#20) - Nighthawk followed Dr. Strange to Cobblers Roost, Virginia, where they met the Fantastic Four's Thing, seeking to aid Valkyrie. Dr. Strange chastised Nighthawk's enthusiasm for the Defenders when he revealed too much about the team. Tracking the villain Van Nyborg, Nighthawk and Thing fell into a pit and confronted on of Van Nyborg's men. While they were distracted by an electrified wall, the man escaped with the powerful Celestia harmonica the Thing had been holding. Nighthawk and Thing soon broke loose and attacked Van Nyborg's cult, including Sister Celestia, stopping them from slaying Dr. Strange and Valkyrie in order to resurrect the Undying Ones.
(Defenders I#21) - Nighthawk bid Thing farewell and tried to support Valkyrie in her identity struggle, though he grew angry and departed when he learned that she'd learned she was married. Nighthawk flew home and was surprised to see Trixie Starr, now calling herself Trish, in his penthouse. He told her of his Nighthawk identity, and the two had an all-night talk until Trish fell asleep. When the Headmen's black rain caused all sleeping New York citizens to go mad, Nighthawk had to subdue Trish and leave her in his penthouse while he tried to help others. Nighthawk tried to stop Gorilla-Man from stealing jewels, but was knocked aside. The rain soon died down.
(Giant-Size Defenders#3 (fb) - BTS) - The Grandmaster sought the Squadron Supreme as players in a game against the robotic Prime Mover, but could only find Nighthawk. He agreed to use the Defenders instead, and had Nighthawk retrieve Dr. Strange, Valkyrie, Sub-Mariner, and Hulk, and then needed a sixth player and had Nighthawk recruit Daredevil. Nighthawk complied, understanding the fate of the world was in the balance.
(Giant-Size Defenders#3) - Nighthawk recruited Daredevil, who initially thought Nighthawk was attacking. The Grandmaster explained to his champions that they would battle two villains in pairs of two and in another unfamiliar world. He stated that lethal force would be required for victory. Nighthawk and Valkyrie were sent to a world of jagged cliffs and clouds where they fought Takkor and a bat-like creature Nighthawk called "Screechy." Nighthawk's costume was almost shredded but he was able to maneuver "Screechy" into crashing into rocks, while Valkyrie defeated Takkor. Grandmaster's forces won, but he declared he would rule Earth anyway; he conceded after Daredevil tricked him into losing a game for it.
(Giant-Size Defenders#4) - Nighthawk started dating Trish Starr more seriously. Out on a date one night, they were caught in a car explosion and rushed to the hospital. Dr. James Wynter operated on Nighthawk, with Strange's help, and they saved his life. Hours later, Nighthawk told Strange and Valkyrie that he suspected the Squadron Sinister for the car bombing. Nighthawk soon received word from the hero, Yellowjacket, that Trish's arm had been amputated, and that Egghead had been responsible. Nighthawk asked Yellowjacket to stop the Defenders from going after the Squadron. The Squadron soon attacked Nighthawk at the hospital, though the Defenders arrived with Yellowjacket and defeated the Squadron. Trish, who had an arm amputated from her accident, later chose to leave Kyle rather than to have him remain with her out of pity.
(Marvel Team-Up I#33 (fb) - BTS) - At some point, Nighthawk read of a villain called the Looter attempting to steal a meteor sample. Hoping to learn more, Nighthawk had the specimen moved to his home.
(Marvel Team-Up I#33) - Nighthawk worked out, thankful he was still alive and feeling bad about Trish, when he returned home to find the Meteor Man (the new guise of the Looter, looting his apartment of the meteor specimen Nighthawk was storing. Nighthawk was knocked aside while Meteor Man escaped, but soon left to find Spider-Man for new information. Spider-Man, thinking Nighthawk a villain, briefly attacked until he heard the whole story. Nighthawk then traveled to the prison where Meteor Man had escaped from and questioned Warden Ivan Carmichael about the inmate. Nighthawk returned to tell Spider-Man that he was no longer going to pursue the case since Meteor Man was just a mentally ill man.
(Marvel Team-Up I#34) - Nighthawk returned to his riding academy and told Valkyrie of his decision. Disgusted, Valkyrie rushed off to fight Meteor Man.
(Defenders I#22) - Agitated with a socialite party, Richmond rushed from kind-hearted Ginny and business-dealing Harold Holliman back to Dr. Strange's mansion, where he chased a stranger from the window. The Defenders returned with Valkyrie's new friend, Elena, to her tenement building, only to see it had had a fire. A fight broke out between the tenants, Harold Holliman (who turned out to be the owner of the paltry building), and the racist armored Sons of the Serpent. The Defenders intervened and broke up the attack.
(Defenders I#23) - Yellowjacket brought a captive Son to the mansion, and Nighthawk briefly interrogated him until he sensed someone watching. They caught the same man from the day before, discovering it was Valkyrie's estranged husband, Jack Norriss, who Nighthawk comforted after Valkyrie rushed from the room. They questioned Holliman, but did not unearth any proof, and so joined the battle against the Serpents, who used powerful ray guns to capture the entire team, though they left the Hulk behind.
(Defenders I#24) - Nighthawk was held in restraints by the Sons alongside Strange, Valkyrie, and Yellowjacket. Valkyrie briefly escaped, but was soon recaptured and taken away to be killed. Nighthawk watched as Yellowjacket escaped.
(Defenders I#25) - Nighthawk and the others were rescued by Son of Satan and Power Man. As they escaped, Nighthawk realized that the villains were based underneath J.C. Pennysworth's office and realized that Richmond Enterprises had been funding the Sons. Nighthawk rushed to confront Pennysworth and unmasked. He retrieved the location of the Sons' headquarters, and the Defenders defeated the villains. Feeling lousy and irresponsible, Nighthawk flew away.
(Last Defenders#4 (fb) - BTS) - Ashamed of his father's past, Joaquin Pennysworth wanted to make things right. Kyle Richmond sponsored him for SHIELD membership.
(Giant-Size Defenders#5) - Nighthawk, struggling with his life's recent struggles, saw a ship crash and, investigating, met the Guardians of the Galaxy (Vance Astro, Charlie-27, Martinex, Yondu) from the future. They joined with Strange, Hulk, and Valkyrie in fighting the monstrous Eelar.
(Defenders I#26) - The Defenders and the Guardians monitored natural disasters taking place due to temporal disturbances. After hearing of the Guardian's future, the Defenders accompanied them to the future to liberate their Earth from the reptilian Badoon.
(Defenders I#27) - An attempt to transport some of their allies to Earth went awry, and they were beamed to other planets. Jack Norriss, who'd stowed away, was very worried, causing Strange to put him in stasis. While Strange probed for their allies' whereabouts, Nighthawk, Martinex, and Charlie-27 were attacked by the Badoon Elite Guard.
(Defenders I#28) - The trio battled the attacking Badoon and their human slaves, the Zoms, until Nighthawk was shot in the shoulder and held captive, despite Nighthawk discovering that the darkness of space also doubled his strength. The Badoon transported the trio to Earth, believing Dr. Strange was dead (as his astral form was about), and prepared to execute them. Strange managed to teleport Valkyrie and Vance Astro to Earth.
(Defenders I#29) - Valkyrie and Vance Astro subdued the few Badoon and released the others from their restraints. Nighthawk told Valkyrie Strange was dead. The heroes stormed the Badoon's Earth headquarters, joined by Hulk and Yondu, and fought until Strange, still alive, paralyzed all the Badoon magically. Strange, with Jack's aid, liberated all the planet's captives, and Strange returned the heroes to their own time.
(Defenders I#30 (fb) - BTS) - While investigating a Los Angeles movie studio Pennysworth had purchased, Nighthawk was captured by the Maggia. He sent a ransom note to Dr. Strange.
(Defenders I#30) - Strange made mental contact with Nighthawk and agreed to come and rescue him. The Maggia man, Tapping Tommy, explained his origins to Nighthawk before Strange, Valkyrie, and Hulk arrived to free him. Tommy, however, defeated the heroes with gas and placed them in an elaborate trap. Nighthawk battled in vain, incredibly annoyed. Valkyrie soon defeated all the robots by destroying the control held by the man, Hodges. Strange defeated Tommy.
(Marvel Treasury Edition#12) - Howard the Duck and Beverly Switzer came to the mansion, shocking Nighthawk, and the mansion was soon attacked by Dr. Angst and his minions, Black Hole, Sitting Bullseye, Spanker, and Tillie the Hun. Though initially trapped by a conjured white picket fence, Nighthawk soon defeated Spanker, who was armed with a paddle and a plastic gun, at Shea Stadium, and the villains were shortly defeated.
(Defenders I#31) - Beset by an intense vision of Trish propagated by Chondu the Mystic, Nighthawk crashed in Central Park and was knocked out by a blast from Dr. Nagan. Nighthawk woke up, drugged, and saw Nagan, Morgan, and Chondu, who informed him that his brain would be removed and replaced by Chondu's, and that his own brain would be laid to the side.
(Defenders I#32) - Nighthawk's brain was sent on a long journey through his memories. Jack, whose mind was in Chondu's brain in Nighthawk's body, retrieved Nighthawk's brain only to be captured by the alien Ludberdites who were led by Nebulon, the Celestial Man.
(Defenders I#33) - Jack escaped with Nighthawk's brain.
(Defenders I#34) - Nighthawk's brain remained in Jack's possession.
(Defenders I#35) - Dr. Strange arranged for Russian Dr. Tania Belinsky to perform the brain transplant for Kyle. She soon arrived and the operation started.
(Defenders I#36) - Finally awakening from the running reel of memories in his head, Nighthawk met Tania Belinsky and groggily watched her defeat three attackers. He was soon kidnapped by Plant-Man, who was demanding a large sum of money for his safe return. Strange and Red Guardian (secretly Belinsky) tried to save him and were captured as well.
(Defenders I#37) - Nighthawk remained barely conscious while Strange and Red Guardian escaped, Power Man joining them to fight Plant-Man. Having returned to the hospital, Nighthawk hired Power Man to stay with the Defenders, then asked his allies to leave as he had a lot on his mind. He talked to Strange about his disconnected feeling since his recovery.
(Defenders I#38) - Jack Norriss told Nighthawk that Strange, Red Guardian, and Power Man had been abducted by Eel and Porcupine of the Celestial Mind Control Movement, and Nighthawk got dressed to investigate. Donning his costume, Nighthawk stormed the headquarters of the Celestial Mind Control Movement and was sent to another dimension with his teammates, who caught the door in time and followed him back through. The attacked the Bozos of the Movement, including Porcupine and Eel, but an other-dimensional beast attacked through the door as well.
(Defenders I#39) - While Dr Strange did a mystic self-inventory, Nighthawk slipped into control of the Defenders, organizing them into search parties to look for Valkyrie when Jack Norriss expressed concern. Nighthawk found no trace of Valkyrie at the Headmen's crushed headquarters, so, as Richmond, he contacted Commissioner Feingold and discovered Valkyrie had been incarcerated. He gathered his allies and they went to retrieve Valkyrie.
(Defenders I#40) - Nighthawk hired lawyer Matt Murdock to represent Valkyrie, who was soon freed, and Nighthawk thanked Red Guardian for acknowledging his financial support of the Defenders. The Committee for Free Emigration threw a rock through the window aimed at Red Guardian, who rushed to pursue them herself. Jack, thoroughly frustrated with the Defenders, chose to leave the heroes, taking a payment of $300,000 from Nighthawk.
(Defenders Annual#1) - The Defenders watched a video sent by Jack where he postulated that many of their recent incongruent actions had been the result of the Headmen's tampering with them during the time they were captive, and stated that he was infiltrating Ruby Thursday's political campaign. The Defenders agreed to begin addressing the world challenges that they'd been subliminally avoiding. Nighthawk and Red Guardian were sent to Paris, France, to investigate the recent uprising of Bozos there. They discovered a conflict between the Movement and an advertising agency set up by the Head-Men; Red Guardian investigated the further while Nighthawk looked into the latter. When Nighthawk returned, having gathered information, he found the Movement headquarters and Red Guardian missing, and was then shrunk down by a blast from Shrunken Bones of the Head-Men. The Defenders were all gathered under one sphere before being rescued by the Hulk. Nighthawk and Red Guardian defeated Chondu while the others beat the other Head-Men and Nebulon.
(Defenders I#41) - Nighthawk and Dr. Strange were contacted by David Anthony, who lived at the "Dune People" compound Trish Starr had moved to. They went to the compound and Nighthawk found himself becoming very short-tempered with David, as his memories of Trish awakened feelings of love and guilt. Strange tracked the missing Trish to another dimension and brought her back, but the sorceress Shazana attacked and held Nighthawk and Strange in a biological trap. Strange contacted the other Defenders and the team successfully repelled Shazana, allowing Nighthawk some time with Trish to reconcile.
(Incredible Hulk II#206-207) - Nighthawk joined his allies in opposing the Hulk, who was destroying the city in a grief-filled rage. Despite being buried in rubble, the Defenders managed to stall the Hulk, Nighthawk bravely traded blows with Hulk, and was amazingly able to talk Hulk into calming down.
(Defenders I#42) - When the Emissaries of Evil attacked, Nighthawk was beset by a fiery blast from Solarr, and was incapacitated while his teammates battled Solarr and Rhino until the villains departed. Nighthawk discovered he was fine and that the fire had only been an illusion. Strange departed, and Cobalt Man attacked, prepped for a nuclear explosion.
(Defenders I#43) - Nighthawk used his minor scientific knowledge to have the Hulk douse Cobalt Man in water, stopping the explosion. While Nighthawk discussed Power Man's future with the team with him, he was defeated by an attacking Egghead, who restrained Nighthawk with a bola egg. Cobalt Man and Egghead seemingly disintegrated.
(Marvel Comics Super Special#1) - Nighthawk was among the Defenders who met with Dizzy the Hun and decided to stay out of the newly-empowered KISS' conflict with Dr. Doom as well as their extradimensional travels.
(Defenders I#44) - Hulk rampaged over Strange being missing and responded to Valkyrie but not Nighthawk's admonition to calm down. When Jack returned, Nighthawk angrily told him to leave. Tracking Strange, they met Lt. Kris Keating, who was taking away Rhino and Solarr. They went to the Hotel Americana and met Omar Karindu, who informed them that Strange was possessed by the Star of Capistan into being Red Rajah. Karindu, Keating, and others were soon ensorcelled by Rajah, who Nighthawk, Hulk, and Power Man tried to fight, but they were also ensorcelled.
(Defenders I#45) - Red Rajah tested their limits by having Hulk punch Nighthawk and Power Man. The female Defenders attacked, and Nighthawk did his best to defeat Red Guardian, but she knocked him unconscious with a blow to the ground. Clea freed Strange, and the Defenders made amends, though Strange announced he was leaving the team.
(Defenders I#46) - Strange, Red Guardian, and Power Man departed (causing Nighthawk distress) and Hellcat joined the team, who moved their headquarters to Nighthawk's riding academy. They returned to the riding academy, where Scorpio, wielding the Zodiac Key, attacked, looking for Kyle Richmond. Scorpio snared Hellcat with the key and threw her into Nighthawk. The teammates worked together to disarm Scorpio, but he turned into water and got the Key back, then departed.
(Defenders I#47) - With some precious alone time, Nighthawk took a bath and read the paper. Nighthawk decided to look for a date.
(Defenders I#48) - Nighthawk got a call from Scorpio, directed to Kyle Richmond, hearing that Jack had been captured and Scorpio wanted $500,000 ransom. Valkyrie and Hellcat returned, revealing that they'd turned Jack over to who they thought was Nick Fury, disgusting Nighthawk. Nighthawk picked up the cash and went to the meeting spot, but Scorpio had figured Nighthawk was Richmond and captured him.
(Defenders I#49) - Nighthawk was held by Scorpio, who discussed his origins and moved to awaken his robot version of the Zodiac. The Defenders arrived to help just as the robotic Zodiac woke up.
(Defenders I#50) - When night finally hit, Nighthawk finally burst free. Valkyrie, Hellcat, Moon Knight, Hulk, and Nighthawk got involved in a complicated melee with the Zodiac, who had varying responses and states of mind about Scorpio's plan, some of them meeting grisly fates that unhinged Scorpio's sanity further. In the end, the Zodiac was defeated and Scorpio committed suicide.
(Defenders I#51) - After the mess from their battle was cleaned up, Nighthawk convinced Valkyrie to enroll in school and told her to see Mr. Verderkor, an old acquaintance of his, not knowing Verderkor was dead. He noticed a villain attacking his building when Keating's men surrounded it, and stormed as Nighthawk, battling the Ringer, who was robbing Richmond's things. Nighthawk had a long and frustrating fight with Ringer, who continued firing explosive rings, and Nighthawk's arm became injured in the fight. In the end, Nighthawk stopped Ringer from escaping by entangling the villain in his own rings. This battle disturbed Nighthawk, as he wondered what had become of his life. Nighthawk's jetpack was also destroyed in the fight.
(Defenders I#52) - Nighthawk's secretary, Gail, showed Hellcat in, and Nighthawk was glad to see her, especially since he'd been questioned about the Ringer battle for two full hours by Keating. When they heard about Hulk and Sub-Mariner fighting, they rushed off to intervene. After breaking up the fight, they learned that Sub-Mariner's kingdom was being harmed by radiation from Russia, and agreed to go and aid him in finding its source.
(Avengers I#167) - Nighthawk, Wasp, and Yellowjacket opposed a robbery staged by Porcupine (Alex Gentry).
(Defenders I#53) - With Sub-Mariner, Hulk, and Hellcat, Nighthawk traveled to Atlantis where they met Vashti, had a feast, and planned how to aid Atlantis through the pending nuclear disaster. They boarded a ship toward Russia and, as they arrived, felt a nuclear explosion tear the ship apart around them.
(Defenders I#54) - As the water swept through the ship, Nighthawk was knocked out and had to be saved by his allies. Finally on land, Nighthawk grew furious with the Hulk's rash thinking, but they were soon approached by the Presence and Red Guardian, both crackling in radiation.
(Defenders I#55) - The heroes attacked and Nighthawk was hit with a stray radiation blast. Seeking weaponry from the ship, Nighthawk blew an Atlantean horn that summoned the monstrous Behemoth from Below, an act he regretted. Nighthawk fled, barely avoiding the creatures' fists and teeth. Hulk toppled the creature and the heroes had to scramble to avoid being crushed by its falling form until the creature was obliterated by a blast from Presence, who departed after Red Guardian enticed him to. Nighthawk and the others collapsed from radiation exposure.
(Defenders I#56) - Nighthawk was placed into a decontamination tank to overcome his radiation exposure. They were then released back to the states, despite complications with international border violations.
(Defenders I#57) - Nighthawk and Hellcat took time to relax, but when they returned to Nighthawk's penthouse, Ms. Marvel was there seeking the Defenders' aid. Nighthawk tracked a suspicious flying car back to the A.I.M. base and he, Ms. Marvel, and Hellcat fought against A.I.M., their creation the Warbot, and their agent, Arthur Shaman. They helped rescue Ms. Marvel's ally, Michael Barnett.
(Marvel Two-In-One#34 (fb) - BTS) - Nighthawk was summoned to England for a major Richmond Enterprises meeting, which filled him with trepidation. On the flight over, his plane was hijacked and Nighthawk had to save the day.
(Marvel Two-In-One#34) - He showed up for the meeting late and met Marcus Welby and Reginald Casey, who informed him of a life-form found in a Himalayan rock. After debating the issue with Dr. Kort and the Thing, he chose to release the life-form, which turned out to be the alien Shambler. After a period of time unconscious, Nighthawk and Thing pursued the Shambler and stopped Mark Soames from shooting it. They came across a fire and worked to rescue children from the burning building, noting that the Shambler aided them as well. In a final rescue, Nighthawk was caught in the fire rescuing the child Maggie and the Shambler saved them, but Soames and others shot down the Shambler anyway, killing him and disgusting Nighthawk.
(Defenders I#59) - Near his riding academy, Nighthawk grew very concerned about Hellcat speeding in his classic Lola MK1 car. Nighthawk then upgraded his costume, having hired a team of men to aid him. With a new jetpack, navigational radar, and lenses over his eyes that allowed him to see infrared and to zoom in on objects, he felt he was much more of his namesake. He then tested out his fighting capabilities against the elaborately constructed Murder Machine, which was designed to throw several attacks against him. Hellcat aided him against the machine, but the Hulk soon smashed it to shut it down. Nighthawk, Hellcat, and Hulk joined Valkyrie back at Strange's mansion to participate in a mission and met film student Dollar Bill.
(Defenders I#60) - The heroes prepared to depart for Mexico to track the Cult of the Harvester of Eyes, and Dollar Bill convinced the heroes to let him accompany them, promising to stay out of trouble. Nighthawk flew the heroes there in his personal plane, where Hulk continued prodding him, and the Air Force, manipulated by the demon Balthazar, shot the plane down, though Nighthawk did not seem at all concerned about the financial loss. Nighthawk continued questioning his leadership capabilities as Hulk and Hellcat pursued a demon, but he, Valkyrie, and Dollar Bill were soon faced by a demonic version of Dr. Strange. Strange directed Nighthawk into an alien dimension where Nighthawk fought through a group of demons, retrieved the Eye of Agamotto, and, when he blacked out, set his jetpack to return him to the dimensional portal; Dr. Strange pulled him through.
(Dr. Strange II#29 (fb)) - When a string of petty thefts struck the R. E. branch in London, which had been implementing a new stardrive, Nighthawk investigated. He interviewed Dr. Thatcher, who claimed he'd been beset by demons. While questioning Thatcher's assistant, H. Howard Bradley, he heard Thatcher scream and found the man dead.
(Dr. Strange II#29) - Nighthawk sought Strange's aid and they traveled to London together, where Strange discovered Bradley was receiving visits from 'Thatcher's ghost,' secretly Death-Stalker, whom they soon attacked. Death-Stalker left Nighthawk in an icy paralyzed state, choosing not to kill the hero with his touch. Soon, Death-Stalker sought to fire a powerful gun at them, but Strange turned the blast back on him, defeating Death-Stalker.
(Defenders I#61) - Nighthawk watched as Hellcat showed off her Shadow-Cloak, briefly accidentally pulling the Ort-Beast through it; he served hot chocolate. The Defenders read of Lunatik's deadly rampage across Empire State University campus, and devised a plan, with the aid of Professor Harrison Turk and Dollar Bill, to trap the vigilante. They constructed a statue of Spider-Man for the Hulk to hide inside, but Hulk refused. Alongside Spider-Man, they battled Lunatik, who escaped after knocking Nighthawk out; Nighthawk's form had to be caught by Aragorn and then Spider-Man's web to avoid hitting the ground.
(Defenders I#62) - After the Defenders played Frisbee, they were invited by Dollar Bill to watch a TV special he'd put together about them, which invited any interested heroes to join the team, infuriating Nighthawk. The next morning, over a dozen heroes showed up at the riding academy and Nighthawk was horrified. He kicked Dollar Bill out, then took out his frustrations by chasing Falcon across the property.
(Defenders I#63) - As the chaos died down, Iron Man delivered news that several villains were terrorizing the city under the name Defenders, the heroes divided into three teams, Nighthawk agreeing to lead Marvel Man, Nova, Polaris, Son of Satan, and Tagak, and they left for the city immediately. They soon responded to a man shouting about a car thief, only to learn that the thief was the man's son.
(Defenders I#64) - Still looking for villains, Nighthawk's team stopped the same adolescent from stealing his mother's purse. Nighthawk tried to assert his authority to his team, and the team deserted him instead. Nighthawk came across a group of the 'Defenders' villains (Boomerang, Joe the Gorilla, Leaper, Libra, Melter, Pecos Bill, Shocker, Toad) robbing the stock exchange. Nighthawk attacked but was taken down by a blast from the Melter, allowing the villains to escape. Valkyrie's team found the villains and Valkyrie defeated them all, sinking into a bloodlust, batting aside heroes as well and choking Nighthawk until he shook her out of it. Disconcerted, the additional heroes all departed.
(Defenders I#65) - Nighthawk and Valkyrie returned to the academy, where he hanged a sign that said "Scram Super-Heroes! No More Defenders Needed!" He then found Valkyrie in another fit, hacking at a water trough, and snapped her out of it, vowing to get her medical help. While waiting for the doctor to arrive, Valkyrie departed, leaving a note for her friends not to try and find her.
(Defenders I#66 - BTS) - Nighthawk got audited by the Justice Department, who formed a case against him for tax evasion, fraud, and stock manipulation.
(Defenders I#67) - While driving on a cliffside road, Hellcat crashed her car, killing her and Nighthawk. They were shocked when Valkyrie (secretly the maddened Barbara Norriss possessing Valkyrie's form) showed up to take them to Valhalla, where all the Asgardian heroic dead went to dwell. Alongside an army of humans, including the Hulk, Hellcat and Nighthawk were told by Ollerus the Unmerciful that Hela, Goddess of Death, had caused their deaths, and he vowed to lead them in battle against her.
(Defenders I#68) - Ollerus further convinced the Defenders to fight for him, giving them leadership of his army. After a time, the Defenders noticed two Valkyries in the sky and found themselves unsure of which one was the true one. After their Valkyrie boasted in an insane way, the Defenders realized she was Barbara Norriss and rushed to aid the real Valkyrie. They rallied with Hela's forces against the forces of Ollerus and, when the Hulk destroyed Ollerus's mountain, proved triumphant. Valkyrie agreed to return with them to Earth.
(Defenders I#69) - Nighthawk and Hellcat found themselves back to life, and checked out of the hospital.
(Defenders I#119 (fb)) - Valkyrie tried giving Nighthawk horseback lessons before Yandroth, in a woman's body, attacked them and gained mind control with a small brain implant. Soon, at Strange's mansion, the woman had control of Dr. Strange, Clea, Nighthawk, Valkyrie, Hellcat, Hulk, and Sub-Mariner, but the Defenders managed to break free and defeat Yandroth.
(Alias#25 (fb), 26 (fb) - BTS) - The Defenders and the Avengers (Captain America, Iron Man, Ms. Marvel Scarlet Witch, Thor, Vision) returned from an adventure. Shortly after the mind-controlled (by Purple Man) heroine Jewel (Jessica Jones) had attacked Scarlet Witch, the Quinjet with the Defenders (Dr. Strange, Hulk, Namor, Silver Surfer and Valkyrie) landed. Jewel fled, but was hunted down and severely beaten by the present heroes until she was saved by Ms. Marvel.
(Defenders I#69) - Nighthawk accompanied Dr. Strange to see if the menace of the Omegatron was renewed. The Defenders fought against the Anything Man, a veterinarian who'd been powered by the Omegatron. The Defenders battled him until they realized his powers were fueling the Omegatron, so Nighthawk isolated Anything Man, convincing him to relinquish his power.
(Defenders I#70) - Nighthawk, Valkyrie, and Hellcat returned to the riding academy where a limousine bearing Ron Rice and Hal waited to present Nighthawk with formal charges of fraud, stock manipulation, and tax evasion, and they were also concerned about reports of his death. Nighthawk initially attacked the men, trying to frighten them off. Later, Nighthawk tried to attend to his business dealings, but called by Hellcat to help battle Lunatik. He defeated Lunatik himself and then found that Valkyrie and Hellcat had also defeated a Lunatik each, just before Prof. Turk claimed to be Lunatik also.
(Defenders I#71) - The Defenders met with Dollar Bill, Turk, and Ledge, and the three captive Lunatiks and learned that the Lunatiks and Turk were each aspects of Arisen Tyrk, the deposed god of Other-Realm. The Defenders, with Clea, took the Tyrk aspects to Tunnelworld, where they battled the Nilffim riders. The Lunatiks escaped and kidnapped Hellcat.
(Defenders I#72) - Nighthawk allied with the Sputs to find his allies, and he was soon reunited with them, Dr. Strange, and Hulk. They led an attack against the Lunatiks' master, the Unnameable. Nighthawk took a hard blow from an attacking monster to protect the others, and they fought other monsters on their way.
(Defenders I#73) - The heroes teamed up with Xhoohx, sorcerer supreme of Tunnelworld, and saw the Lunatiks recombined into Arisen Tyrk, who they fought and defeated before returning home. He got a call from Milton Rosenblum and rushed off to meet his lawyers in Manhattan.
(Defenders I#74) - Nighthawk met with Rosenblum and learned that he could not legally operate as Nighthawk for a time. He informed his teammates, filled with regret.
(Defenders I#75) - While riding behind chauffer Harold with Rosenblum, Kyle took a call from Ledge requesting aid for the Defenders against Foolkiller. He chose to ignore the subpoena and rushed back to the academy as Nighthawk. When he arrived, he found Foolkiller defeated and the academy in flames, the fire department working to stop the flames. When reporter Fia Lundstrom tried interviewing Nighthawk, he announced that the Defenders were kaput and flew off.
(Defenders I#76) - Nighthawk returned to his penthouse and was served with papers that promised him being sent to jail if he acted as Nighthawk before the court investigation was over.
(Defenders I#77) - Nighthawk was angry over the government's edict and grew angrier when he received word from Davies that his aggressive weapons package was completed.
(Fantastic Four Annual#14) - Nighthawk joined several other heroes in unsuccessfully attacking a strange forcefield.
(Defenders I#79) - Nighthawk received a call from Wasp, who informed him that Valkyrie, Hellcat, and Yellowjacket had been captured by Mandrill and Mutant Force.
(Defenders I#80) - Despite the legal consequences, Nighthawk rushed to their aid. He conferred with the military, whose base in Colorado had been attacked by the villains. Nighthawk realized that Valkyrie and Hellcat had somehow been controlled by the villains to fight on their side. He used his new enhanced lens vision and laser cannon to send the villains running, then slashed through metal with new titanium talons. His shielded wings gave him cover after he failed to subdue Valkyrie and the Mutant Force opened fire on him. Nighthawk picked up Valkyrie and Hellcat and threw them into an electrical field, restoring their minds. They then defeated the villains and Nighthawk rescued Yellowjacket. He was commended by his team and Amber, Ruth, and Dian, allies of Omega the Unknown.
(Defenders I#81) - Nighthawk brought Valkyrie and Hellcat back to his apartment and was then arrested by the F.B.I. for operating as a hero against orders.
(Defenders I#83) - Nighthawk worked with Rosenblum, who tried to make Nighthawk realize the seriousness of the charges against him.
(Defenders I#84) - Still working with Rosenblum, Nighthawk heard about a potential conflict between Atlantis and Wakanda, wondering if he'd be able to help.
(Defenders I#85) - Nighthawk made great progress on cleaning up his business dealings, still working with Rosenblum. They heard another report that Hellcat was involved in a supposed attack on the Wakandan consulate. Before he could rush off, Rosenblum turned off the television.
(Defenders I#86) - Nighthawk received a visit from Rosenblum, who recommended that Nighthawk plea bargain to reduce the sentence, though Nighthawk was not inclined to do that. He received a visit from Hellcat and Black Panther, who asked for Richmond Enterprises' aid in tracking stolen equipment. Nighthawk agreed to use company assets to help.
(Defenders I#87 (fb)) - Nighthawk, still waiting for the court's decision, allowed Valkyrie and Hellcat to stay at his penthouse. He wondered whether they'd tracked down the Hulk or not, and watched as they left to find him.
(Defenders I#87) - While the Defenders fixed their ship at Nighthawk's aerospace lab, he had to save employee Grimsby, sans costume, who was distracted by Hellcat. Nighthawk heard from Rosenblum that the court had lifted the stipulation and he could now wear his costume again, thanks to legal aid from Matt Murdock. Nighthawk immediately put on his costume, soared, and considered rejoining the Defenders.
(Defenders I#88) - Nighthawk watched as Richmond Enterprises repaired the Defenders' air-car, and had to save employee Grimsby when he almost fell after Hellcat distracted him. Nighthawk received word from Rosenberg and Murdock that he could operate as a hero again. He flew through the city, thrilled, and stopped a hostage situation aboard a plane, even saving the plane from crashing. The fight required Nighthawk to use his suit's autopilot, lasers, titanium talons, laser cannon, and superior strength, making him feel like Iron Man. He was briefly interviewed by reporter, Miss Tolliver. He later received bad news from Rosenblum and Murdock that the courts decided to press charges for fiscal malfeasance, income tax evasion, and other crimes.
(Defenders I#89) - The doorman, Barton Beekman, let in Hellcat, Valkyrie, and Hulk as Nighthawk worked to calm Rosenblum who was furious that the government was freezing all of Nighthawk's assets until the investigation was over. Nighthawk took a call and learned that Dorothy Walker, Hellcat's mother, had passed, and he gave her the news. They attended the funeral and met Dolly Donahue, Dorothy's housekeeper. The heroes decided to stay with her in Montclair, New Jersey for a time, and Nighthawk (whose suit had been in Rosenblum's trunk) retrieved his costume and joined them. After a meal of beans and a sleepless night, Nighthawk moved to go to court.
(Defenders I#90) - Nighthawk attended his trial, where the state was represented by Mr. Haverhill and Judge Clark presided. When Matt Murdock called requesting aid for Daredevil, Nighthawk found an excuse to leave and rescued Daredevil from a bank vault, where he'd been trapped by Mandrill. They returned and fought Mandrill and Fem-Force, with Hellcat and Valkyrie under Mandrill's control again. Nighthawk fought Hellcat until, with an electric shock, he was able to release her again, but Valkyrie and Mandrill fled.
(Defenders I#91) - Nighthawk flew the room, disgusted that the judge was now under Mandrill's thrall, and Daredevil followed him, offering to help. Nighthawk equipped Hellcat with a bracelet that would keep her free from Mandrill's control. Nighthawk, Daredevil, and Hulk opposed the Mandrill, soon seeing him defeated.
(Marvel Team-Up I#101 (fb) - BTS) - His secret identity exposed, Nighthawk began trying to accept his new public exposure. He started receiving letters with pictures of him and Mindy Williams in them, some with death threats attached.
(Marvel Team-Up I#101) - Nighthawk held a press conference with the media, hoping to quell negative public opinions about him, but was shocked when a robot of Mindy Williams leaped up, tossing Kyle and reporters around and accusing Nighthawk of murder. Spider-Man arrived and webbed the robot, whose head came free from her body. The head then implored Nighthawk to come to Grayburn University, before he kicked the head away. After Nighthawk confided in him, Spider-Man agreed to accompany him to Grayburn, and they passed young women Karen and Renee along the way. At Grayburn, they found robots wielding guns and weapons dressed as students, and destroyed many of them when the robots attacked. Nighthawk and Spider-Man were knocked out with riot gas, then robots dressed as riot police chained them, one placing Nighthawk in a replica of the car Mindy had died in. Mindy, in a wheelchair, approached, revealing that she'd never died, but that Kyle's father had paid her to leave the country and feign her death. Driven insane by this, Mindy revealed she'd been planning her revenge on Nighthawk for years. She sent the car careening toward the tree where she'd been “killed”, and Nighthawk only just managed to escape before the crash. After wounding Spider-Man, Mindy soon broke down in tears and asked Nighthawk for help. He placed her in a sanitarium to get help, then he tracked down Spider-Man to thank him for his help.
(Marvel Team-Up I#101/2) - Filled with self-doubt, Nighthawk let off steam by shooting down an old wall with his laser cannons, not realizing a young crippled girl was beneath the wall. When she cried out, he rushed to hold the wall up so she could crawl to safety, though it took her several minutes of agonizing pain to do so. As the sun came up, Nighthawk lost his strength and the wall crashed down on him, but he used his cannons to free himself and bid the girl farewell.
(Defenders I#92) - Nighthawk returned to the Defenders heavy-hearted because of his experience with Mindy. He and Hulk were soon sent to Russia to track down Ivan, one of the missing aspects of Eternity. They fought and defeated psychokinetic constructs of snow giants, then were entreated by couple Anya and Rodian to find Ivan. They were soon caught up in a cosmic fight with other Defenders and the other two aspects of Eternity, Sai Anand and Socrates Cavropolis. The Defenders were defeated, and Nighthawk convinced the aspects to return to Eternity in order to experience humanity to its fullest. He could not take joy in the victory, though, as he thought of the sad Russian couple.
(Defenders I#93) - While relaxing with his friends, Nighthawk suddenly collapsed, the life-force which his friends had infused him with (after his old battle with the Squadron Sinister, just before he joined the Defenders) having been interrupted. When he awoke, Dr. Strange informed him that his own life form had stabilized, but that it had left him paralyzed. The Defenders rushed off on a mission, leaving Nighthawk behind.
(Defenders I#94) - Clea went in to check on Nighthawk, but he was gone. She saw a shadow flying outside his window.
(Defenders I#95) - The Defenders returned with new ally, Gargoyle, and Nighthawk surprised them with his ability to walk restored. Probing by Dr. Strange, however, revealed that he would only be able to do so at night. Nighthawk calmed himself, determined to take advantage of this ‘second chance' he was being given. The Defenders were attacked by Dracula, who was possessed by Puishannt of the Six-Fingered Hand, then they teamed with his to stop Puishannt, and they successfully defeated the demon's cult in Transylvania; at the battle's end, Nighthawk was again paralyzed as day struck.
(Defenders I#96) - Nighthawk and Valkyrie visited Rosenblum to have him delay all court proceedings, and Nighthawk left suddenly when Rosenblum showed him pity. When the Defenders left for a mission in Detroit, Nighthawk chose to remain behind and do some thinking.
(Defenders I#97) - Nighthawk joined the Defenders in Detroit and the heroes, allied with Devil-Slayer, soon teleported to the Middle East to track down the Six-Fingered Hand again. Devil-Slayer's wife, Cory Payne, had joined a group worshipping supposed Messiah, David Kessler. Nighthawk fell paralyzed once again, and, to expose Kessler, Nighthawk agreed to allow the Messiah to attempt to heal him, which he did. When the Defenders came to blows with Kessler and an attacking horde of angels, Nighthawk stood by, unsure of what to do until the angels were revealed to be demons. He attacked, and helped drive the demon Hyppokri from Kessler.
(Defenders I#98) - Kessler's spell wore off and Nighthawk returned to New York carried by Valkyrie. The Defenders left on another mission, but Nighthawk chose to stay behind. He quit the team effectively and hired a chauffer and a nurse, Luann Bloom, to tend to his needs.
(Defenders I#99) - After bonding with Luann and truly enjoying her company, Nighthawk was shocked by Hellcat appearing in a Shadow-Cloak and teleporting him away to Satan (Kurios). He and other Hell-lords, Mephisto, Thog, and Satannish were behind the Hand, and they manifested their hellish powers on Earth, transforming it into a world of night. An expanded roster of Defenders soon joined them (Clea, Devil-Slayer, Dr. Strange, Gargoyle, Hulk, Silver Surfer, Sub-Mariner, Valkyrie).
(Defenders I#100) - The Defenders reeled with the seeming revelation that Hellcat was Satan's daughter (later proven to be false). Hellcat accosted Valkyrie and Hellcat, embracing her new ‘heritage.' The Defenders agreed to participate in three contests to attempt to attempt to wrest control of Earth from the entities. Nighthawk, with Devil-Slayer and Gargoyle, was sent to a large battle, seemingly a conglomerate of every war ever fought. Nighthawk won the battle when he used logic to convince the soldiers' to stop fighting, but Thog seemingly destroyed them all with a nuclear explosion. The Defenders were soon reunited against Satan and the possessed Hellcat, who was soon restored to normal, though Satan left her with doubts about her parenthood. The Defenders fed their energy into Hailstorm, who defeated Satan and returned to Hell with him.
(Defenders I#101) - Nighthawk, with Luann, soon departed again, leaving his allies behind.
(Defenders I#102) - Luann accompanied Nighthawk to Strange's mansion where Clea and Gargoyle tried working mystically to restore Nighthawk's mobility and tracking down the source of it. Nighthawk and Luann then traveled to Massachusetts to visit Mindy in Carriwhite Acres, where they met August Masters, the leader of the hospital. Nighthawk, in his wheelchair, greeted Mindy, who was mentally unstable and fixated on her relationship with him. Later, Clea revealed that she'd tracked down the source of Nighthawk's paralysis to Carriwhite. That night, he dressed as Nighthawk to investigate, and fought armed guards on his way in. Masters told Nighthawk that Carriwhite was a government front from which they were training psychics, including Mindy, and Nighthawk learned that Mindy was behind his paralysis. After punching Masters, Nighthawk was beset by an attack of psychic rats until Clea broke through the psychic defenses and helped Mindy defeat Masters and the others. Nighthawk promised to expose Masters, but he reached the papers first. Kyle vowed revenge.
(Marvel Graphic Novel: Death of Captain Marvel#1) - Nighthawk, alongside other heroes, attended the demise of Captain Marvel on Titan.
(Silver Surfer Annual#6 (fb) ) - Along with many other heroes Nighthawk was present at Mar-Vell's funeral.
(Tales to Astonish II#13/2) - While flying, Nighthawk was attacked by three children who'd been transformed into likenesses of Hulk, Captain America, and Spider-Man by the villain Cyrus Black. He convinced the children to remove the rings that were powering him, and they changed back to normal. Nighthawk captured Black and turned him over to Dr. Strange.
(Defenders I#103) - While attending to his legal challenges with Luann, Rosenblum, Murdock, and others, Nighthawk received a mystic summons from Clea, but refused to go, embarrassing himself in front of the others by speaking out. The court finally determined that if Nighthawk pay $767,000 in back taxes, they would drop all charges against him. Nighthawk was thrilled, but saw Masters waiting outside, claiming that he was behind the charges being dropped.
(Contest of Champions I#1-3) - Nighthawk briefly participated alongside dozens of heroes in the Contest of Champions staged between Grandmaster and Death.
(Defenders I#104) - Nighthawk threw a party to celebrate in the new brownstone he'd purchased for the Defenders, inviting Luann, Murdock, Rosenblum, Valkyrie, Hellcat, and Gargoyle. Some of August Masters' men stormed the room, including Hanson, and gassed the heroes, taking them captive.
(Captain America I#268) - While the other three Defenders were held captive, Nighthawk, paralyzed, was brought before August Masters, who told Nighthawk that no such agency as the CID existed. Masters revealed Mindy being tortured, held captive by Ronaldson, and threatened Nighthawk's teammates if Nighthawk didn't help stabilize Mindy so that she could join other Psychics in launching a mental war on the Soviet Union. The other Defenders were drugged and placed in a cell with Captain America, and Nighthawk was injected with a sub-skin monitoring device.
(Defenders I#106) - Masters took Nighthawk (who could walk as it was night) to the heart of their operation, revealing that they planned to use the telepaths to murder the Soviet population in order to start another war. Six of the telepaths, later called the Psychics (including Mindy), took possession of Nighthawk, who moved deeper into Mt. Charteris and planned to blow the facility up, killing all inside and foiling Masters' plan. He enticed Dr. Strange (who'd come to rescue him) and the other heroes to get out, then blew up the building, willingly sacrificing himself.
(Defenders I#107 - BTS) - A small memorial service for Nighthawk was attended by Beast, Vera Cantor, Captain America, Daredevil, Dr. Strange, Gargoyle, Hawkeye, Hulk, Power Man, Silver Surfer, Spider-Man, Sub-Mariner, and Thor. They lit a mystic flame to continue burning for him.
(Defenders I#117 - BTS) - After over-coming the false hope that Nighthawk was not dead, the Defenders (Dr. Strange, Gargoyle, Hellcat, Over-Mind (containing the combined minds of the Psychics, and Valkyrie) bid their final farewell at the site of the flame.
(Captain America I#429 (fb) - BTS) - Dead Ringer obtained a pice of Nighthawk's tissue. (see comments)
(Captain America I#429 - BTS) - In Nighthawk's form Dead Ringer was pursued by Falcon and escaped him.
(Nighthawk#1) - After being brain dead and in a coma for several months in a hospital setting, where he was tended to by Dr. Hildebrant and named John Doe. Nighthawk was finally awakened and confronted with a vision of an angel (secretly Mephisto in disguise), and the 'angel' granted Nighthawk a second sight that allowed him to see what criminals would do before they did it, and charged Nighthawk with stopping their crimes. Nighthawk awakened and had to don dark glasses since his eyes were so light sensitive. He donned a new Nighthawk costume months later, after he had rehabilitated, and used his second sight to stop a mugger from committing a crime against student Beck Thomas, and the crime was investigated by Detective Ross. Since the crime had not yet been committed, however, the man got off and Nighthawk was seen as a criminal, a reputation he maintained over the following weeks as he continued stopping criminals who had not yet committed crimes. When Nighthawk saw Daredevil, he foresaw him murdering the hero. Daredevil, as Matt Murdock, confronted Nighthawk about his acts, stating that they were unjust, but Nighthawk continued, stopping some potential drug dealers until Daredevil attacked him. Nighthawk defensively fought the hero until, in a fury, he choked Daredevil to death. Mephisto appeared over Nighthawk triumphantly.
(Nighthawk#2) - Mephisto revealed that he had been the angel and transported Nighthawk and Daredevil to Hell. Nighthawk took Daredevil's corpse and grew determined to find a way out of Hell (though he was tempted to leave Daredevil behind), and strapped the hero's corpse to him as he walked endlessly. He was taunted by a feminine looking demon then several large mouthed mummified demons. He fought a group of demons and then continued walking in the freezing cold, coming across an unexpected flame surrounded by demons. He discovered that the fire could restore Daredevil and used it to do so, though Daredevil was still very weak. The demons surrounded them to attack.
(Nighthawk#3) - They fought the demons and then fled into an apathetic and sorrowful area of hell. Nighthawk was confronted with memories of his past and the angel appeared before him again, trying to convince him he was in heaven, though Daredevil was able to convince Nighthawk that it was Mephisto once a gain. In the end, despite the devil's temptations, the heroes were able to triumph over him and return to Earth. Nighthawk maintained his second sight and sought out one of Mephisto's guises, claiming he was going to be able to resist any of Mephisto's future plotting.
(Defenders II#2 (fb) - BTS) - Nighthawk spent his fortune seeking out mystics and occult knowledge, finally hiring the dwarfish mystic Papa Hagg to exorcise him of Mephisto's powers. Nighthawk found Valkyrie, in plain-clothes, hunched in an alley incapable of speech. He took her in and made her his bodyguard, hoping to find out what had happened to her.
(Defenders II#1) - After landing his helicopter amid a swarm of gargoyles (summoned by Yandroth), Nighthawk was questioned by the media, but dismissed them. Nighthawk received a call for aid from Hellcat, and had Papa Hagg teleport the original Defenders to Maine to aid her. The Defenders succeeded in their mission, but Papa Hagg sensed that a curse had been placed on them by the dying Yandroth.
(Defenders II#2) - Nighthawk honed his skills as Valkyrie watched when Hellcat arrived, informing them that the four main Defenders had been affected by the curse. They watched, through Papa Hagg's powers, as the four Defenders (Doctor Stephen Strange, Hulk (Bruce Banner), Silver Surfer, Sub-Mariner) were defeated by Pluto and another Valkyrie in northern Canada.
(Defenders II#3) - Nighthawk, Hellcat, and Valkyrie were transported to Canada by Papa Hagg, and Hellcat freed the Defenders, allowing all the heroes to fight Pluto's minions. Valkyrie fought the other Valkyrie, and then revealed herself as Lorelei, an Asgardian sorceress and ally of Pluto who had been manipulated by him. While Pluto and Lorelei fought over control of Valkyrie, Nighthawk helped destroy Pluto's temple, inadvertently allowing the denizens of the dead access to Earth.
(Defenders II#4) - Joined by the Asgardian Valkyrior, including Brunnhilde, the Defenders fought the dead denizens, then moved to attack Pluto and Lorelei. When Zeus' visage appeared above them, the villains teleported away. Valkyrie took time to bury the fallen man, then received Dragonfang and Aragorn from Brunnhilde. Brunnhilde departed, and Valkyrie decided to join the Defenders, though the primary Defenders still did not agree that there was a real team.
(Defenders II#5) - Nighthawk, Hellcat, and Valkyrie watched Strange's efforts to interpret the source of the curse, and viewed a taunting image of Yandroth appear before Strange, who dismissed his allies when Nighthawk mentioned Papa Hagg might aid them. The three of them changed and went out on the town, where they ate at a pizza place and Nighthawk tried bringing up Papa Hagg again. When they received news of an attack at a museum that Richmond sponsored, the Vanderdecken Museum of Antiquities, they rushed in a cab to find the Headmen stealing an artifact. Nighthawk grabbed the artifact from Gorilla-Man, but passed it to Valkyrie when Ruby Thursday ensnared him. He crashed her into a wall, then maneuvered Thursday into an attack from Chondu the Mystic. Soon, the Headmen were all defeated, but they managed to teleport away with the idol anyway. They tried reporting to Dr. Strange, but the curse whisked him away.
(Defenders II#6) - Nighthawk, Hellcat, and Valkyrie pursued the Defenders to Sky-Island, where they were conferring with Red Raven. Hulk, in anger, knocked out Dr. Strange then attacked Bi-Beast, but Valkyrie calmed Hulk down. While Strange got medical care, Nighthawk explained to Sub-Mariner why the Defenders meant so much to him. Soon Red Raven's daughter, Dania, appeared and alerted the Defenders to the Bloodraven Cult, who the Defenders subdued, but not in time to stop their mystic bomb from exploding.
(Defenders II#7) - After fighting off the Bloodraven Cult and helping repel the madness-inspiring Wayfinder (whose entrance into the world was blocked when Sky-Island itself plugged the dimensional portal), the Defenders agreed to aid Namor in liberating Atlantis, though Hulk had to be coerced by Nighthawk. Strange transported them there and granted them the ability to breathe underwater. At Atlantis' gates waited Attuma's Deep Six (Attuma, Nagala, Orka, Piranha, Sea Urchin, Tiger Shark) and the Atlantean military, which Hellcat sparred with. The Defenders vanished due to the curse, however, and Nighthawk, Valkyrie, and Hellcat followed, to see Helleyes already defeated.
(Thunderbolts I#57-58) - Along with many other heroes from Earth Hellcat was trapped in the sky by Graviton. He was lowered back to Earth when Graviton was weakened by his fight with the Thunderbolts.
(Defenders II#9) -Nighthawk helped Hellcat and Valkyrie move in to their new apartment, then walked the streets with them, sharing concerns with Hellcat and listening to parts of her origin. When Hellcat was mobbed by people seeking autographs, she was attacked by an AIM agent. Valkyrie and Nighthawk joined her against an AIM force until they were pulled aboard MODOK's ship in a tractor beam. They learned that since they'd touched the idol the Head-Men had been after, that they were immune to the effects of Orrgo, an alien monster the Head-Men planned to control the world with. Valkyrie burst free and free the others, and they moved to attack Orrgo, who easily swatted them aside. Orrgo then used his powers to take over the entire world. Nighthawk, Valkyrie, and Hellcat ran for it.
(Defenders II#8) - Nighthawk, Valkyrie, and Hellcat reported in to Strange that the Headmen had taken over the world.
(Defenders II#10) - The other Defenders returned to Earth still bickering and overly angry, but the whole team moved to attack Orrgo, who summoned dozens of super-villains to hold them off. After several minutes, Nighthawk, Hellcat, and Valkyrie snuck inside the facility and wrested control of the idol from the Headmen, then Nighthawk stopped Orrgo, who soon returned the world to normal. The idol was smashed and Orrgo left Earth.
(Defenders II#11) - The Defenders attacked Atlantis and battled Attuma's forces again, this time following a carefully prepared plan of Strange's. Despite serious reservations, Nighthawk took on Attuma while his teammates defeated the other villains. They finally came to aid him against Attuma, who had narrowly missed smashing Nighthawk several times. The villains defeated, the Defenders briefly celebrated in Atlantis.
(Defenders II#12/2) - The Defenders defeated Chronarch and returned his mind-controlled dinosaurs to their own time periods. Nighthawk, Valkyrie, and Hellcat continued growing more concerned about the anger and aloofness of the cursed Defenders. Nighthawk quietly followed the four main Defenders as they petitioned Gaea for release from the curse. When Gaea refused, Nighthawk was horrified when they tried to attack her. Nighthawk and the others were beset to the Himalayas.
(Captain America III#50/6) - Nighthawk along with the rest of the Defenders attended the funeral of Captain America (he was just presumed dead at the time).
(Order#1) -Nighthawk nearly froze to death when Dr. Strange disabled the teleportation ring and left Nighthawk in the Himalayas. Papa Hagg later retrieved Nighthawk and brought him to the home of Reginald and Malicia Parrington, Valkyrie's parents, where they heard Nighthawk's concerns and nursed him back to health. Hagg fixed Nighthawk's ring and departed.
(Order#2) -Parringtons showed Valkyrie, Nighthawk, and Hellcat the headquarters they had developed for the Defenders. Papa Hagg appeared on a elephant, then sent the elephant, and the Parringtons, away. He agreed to help them figure out the truth behind the curse, and sent the three allies, linked, into an astral plane where they encountered the more human sides of their allies just before the astral forms of their more savage sides attacked. Hellcat, Nighthawk, and Valkyrie, after a brief battle, were defeated, then teleported back to Earth by Papa Hagg, who said he'd gotten all the information he needed. The computer avatar, Bunnyhopper, then alerted them to the Order's actions in Alaska.
(Order#3) - Papa Hagg summoned Nighthawk, Valkyrie, and Hellcat to act as his agents in a quest, having been shown by the mystic Loa a way to cure the Order of their curse. Valkyrie retrieved Namorita from Atlantis, Hellcat retrieved She-Hulk, and then all five of them retrieved Clea from the Dark Dimension. They wondered how they would find a female counterpart to Silver Surfer, however.
(Order#4) - After interacting with the Parringtons and Bunnyhopper, the Defenders and their allies were sent by Papa Hagg to create a female Silver Surfer (who Nighthawk flirted with). They snuck into the Order's headquarters on Sky-Island and managed to surprise the Surfer. Clea used a mystic dagger and a spell to create Ardina just before the other members of the Order attacked. When Ardina was tossed in Nighthawk and Hellcat, several ribs were broken. The Order teleported their enemies into another dimension.
(Order#5) - Nighthawk, Valkyrie, Hellcat, Namorita, She-Hulk, Ardina, and Clea landed on the planet Yann, where they repelled a snail and bat predator and saved two children from a volcanic upheaval. Scientist Supreme Christopher Ganyrog and Romantic Objective Pamela appeared and healed Nighthawk and Hellcat's injuries with an indigo ray. Hellcat deciphered that Yandroth had been behind the Order's recent instabilities, and Ganyrog confirmed that if the Order continued with violent acts, Yann would be destroyed and Yandroth would be reborn with godlike power. He informed the allies that the Order must be stopped with no violence.
(Order#6) - The allies arrived back on Earth, where they found the Order battling dozens of heroes. Nighthawk, Hellcat, and Valkyrie pleaded to the heroes' leaders, Captain America, Professor X, and others, to stop battling and hear them out. The heroes didn't believe them, however, so Nighthawk summoned Ganyrog and his armed Masters of the Mental Arts. Yandroth, starting to reform, shot down Papa Hagg, and the Order's female counterparts grew able to pass some of the humanity back to the Order, who refused to fight Yandroth anymore. Yandroth faded back into human form and was arrested by Ganyrog and returned to Yann. The Defenders were thanked by Gaea, then returned to the Parringtons. Nighthawk was granted the ability by Gaea to summon the Defenders, through his ring, if needed in the future.
(JLA/Avengers#4) - Nighthawk saved citizens alongside Defenders members Valkyrie, Starlight and Gargoyle from the disasters caused by the merging of the DC and Marvel Universe.
(Thing II#1) - Nighthawk, as Richmond, attended a party held by movie star Carlotta LaRosa at the residence of the wealthy Irma Roberts in honor of the newly wealthy Thing. There were dozens of guests there, all wealthy and elitist. Nighthawk stopped Tony Stark from harassing Constrictor, empathizing with the villain's attempt to reform. Arcade soon attacked through his miniature aid, Brynocki, who knocked out all of the guests with a sonic pulse. Arcade then transferred the guests to a distant island equipped with deathtraps, and dressed Thing, Nighthawk, and Constrictor in their costumes. Arcade then revealed himself and introduced them to his deadly Murderland, an amusement park of sorts.
(Thing II#2) - Arcade explained that all of his 'guests' needed to make it across the island to an immunity spot or they would all die. Nighthawk and Thing immediately started rescuing some of the elite from various traps and explosions, including a deadly roller coaster. Nighthawk tracked Constrictor, who was running away, with his telephoto lens and rushed off to stop him from leaving the group; Brynocki warned Nighthawk not to exceed one thousand feet. He tracked Constrictor and they prepared to battle, but were attacked by robot trees and woodland creatures, so they joined forces to stop them.
(Thing II#3) - Nighthawk convinced Constrictor to aid them, then they helped Thing battle Arcade's Hulk robots. They then fought robotic movie monsters before reaching the tiny immunity spot. Constrictor stopped Carlotta LaRosa from escaping, an act which would have killed them all, and they used her air-car to pile everyone inside, loading them onto the tiny immunity spot. Arcade sought to destroy them anyway, but Iron Man aided them in stopping the villain.
(New Thunderbolts#15 (fb) - BTS) - Nighthawk began to sense increases in his powers, greater strength and stronger senses.
(New Thunderbolts#15) - Speed Demon (dressed in his old Whizzer costume) robbed two million dollars from Richmond Enterprises Division of Accounts Transactions. Though the video didn't catch him in the act, Nighthawk figured it was Speed Demon, and so tracked him down to the Thunderbolts headquarters (former villains acting as heroes, the team Speed Demon had joined). He saw Photon (Genis-Vell) and Speed Demon through the window and knocked them out with an odorless gas. After entering the room, Nighthawk was attacked by Joystick and he quickly defeated her, as Songbird and Radioactive Man arrived. Nighthawk explained, after Speed Demon awoke and decked him, that Speed Demon had robbed from him, but they were soon beset by an attack from the new Hyperion (Zhib Ran) and Dr. Spectrum (Alice Nugent), who were seeking to recruit Nighthawk and Speed Demon into a new Squadron Sinister.
(New Thunderbolts#16) - After a brief fight between the Thunderbolts (Atlas, Joystick, Photon, Radioactive Man, Songbird, Speed Demon) and Hyperion and Dr. Spectrum, Spectrum grabbed Nighthawk and Speed Demon with her constructs and flew them back to their headquarters. Nighthawk questioned the two about their origins, and listened as Spectrum told them of her plans to organize a group of heroes to force change upon the world. Nighthawk and Speed Demon turned on them just as the Thunderbolts arrived. After an even briefer battle, Hyperion and Dr. Spectrum departed, followed by Speed Demon. Nighthawk was willing to settle with the Thunderbolts if Speed Demon returned his money, but Songbird surprised Nighthawk by inviting him to join the team.
(She-Hulk II#3) - Nighthawk was plucked out of time, appearing at She-Hulk's time infraction trial.
(New Thunderbolts#17) - The Thunderbolts and Nighthawk surveyed the damage to their headquarters, and Nighthawk revealed he had an upstate residence, one of several he owned, that they could use while he helped to establish a New York headquarters for the team. Songbird agreed, but Joystick called Nighthawk a geek.
(New Thunderbolts#18) - Nighthawk, working to feel part of the team, trained with the Thunderbolts, but they were soon beset by spatial apertures opened by Photon, who was losing control of his powers. Nighthawk saw brief glimpses into the past and future until Joystick downed Photon, closing the apertures. Becoming aware that Photon may result in the destruction of the universe, the Thunderbolts discussed the possibility of rescuing or killing Photon to stop them. Soon, Swordsman (Andreas Strucker) crashed a Hydra ship into their HQ, hoping to warn them, but Moonstone (Karla Sofen) attacked immediately afterward.
(Thunderbolts II#100) - The Thunderbolts were unexpectedly transported to a hostile Microverse world and fought for their survival. During a quiet moment, they wondered about Moonstone's attack, and Joystick again suggested killing Photon. Nighthawk protested, and Joystick knocked him out with her truncheon. They were soon brought back to Earth by Baron Zemo, who'd gathered forces (MACH-IV, Blizzard (Donnie Gill), Fixer (Norbert Ebersol), Man-Killer, Blackout (Marcus Daniels)) to handle the Photon problem. Nighthawk feigned unconsciousness for a time, gathering information, then fought against Blizzard. Zemo soon revealed he was unintentionally responsible for Photon's breakdown. After a lengthy battle, Zemo killed Photon and rejoined the Thunderbolts.
(Thunderbolts II#101) - Nighthawk questioned Fixer and MACH-IV whether they felt Zemo in charge of the Thunderbolts was dangerous, unable to reconcile his motivations with Zemo's. Songbird harshly told him it may be time for him to go as she didn't need his money anymore. Nighthawk, thoroughly frustrated, flew away.
(Thunderbolts II#102) - Nighthawk rejoined the Squadron Sinister, deciding to oppose Baron Zemo by aiding the Grandmaster, realizing that a deadly battle was approaching and that he had to do something about it. At the Grandmaster's orders, the Squadron tracked down the Wellspring to various conduit points around the world, fighting against the Wellspring's protectors, who could tap into the Wellspring for temporary super-powers, and attempted to track each conduit to its greater source.
(Thing II#8) - Nighthawk attended one of the Thing's poker parties alongside dozens of heroes.
(Civil War#1/Wolverine III#42) - Nighthawk met with several super-heroes to discuss the potential implementation of the Super-Hero Registration Act.
(Thunderbolts II#105) - Though Speed Demon had no powers, the Squadron continued working to track down the Wellspring conduits. Nighthawk also worked on both sides of the 'Civil War,' considered by the Squadron to be a mole. Grandmaster reminded them that if Baron Zemo accessed the Wellspring, the universe would die. Nighthawk was confused about which madman to support.
(Thunderbolts II#106) - At the Wellspring in China, Dr. Spectrum used lethal force to subdue the guardians, causing distress to Nighthawk. They, with Hyperion, got the guardians to release their power, and they worked to track the energy back to its source. Nighthawk called in a favor with Dr. Strange, and Speed Demon used some scrolls to track the final source to Germany. At the Germany plant, the Thunderbolts attacked them in great force. Nighthawk evaded Blizzard only to be knocked out by Joystick. Zemo seemingly killed Grandmaster, and the Squadron was nowhere to be seen.
(Civil War#4) - Nighthawk had joined up with Captain America's group of anti-registration heroes, but after Goliath was killed by the pro-registration side, Nighthawk rethought his decision. After confronting Captain America, he chose to leave and register, walking out alongside Stature and Cable.
(Civil War#5/Civil War: Front Line#6/1) - As part of Captain America's anti-registration resistance movement, Nighthawk joined the fight against government pro-registration heroes. He was soon knocked from the air by a lightning blast from "Codename Lightning," a clone of Thor's. "Thor" soon killed Goliath (Bill Foster) as the anti-registration heroes escaped via Cloak's teleportation powers.
(Civil War#5) - Nighthawk and Stature joined the pro-registration heroes, and Nighthawk confided in Happy Hogan his motives for doing so.
(Black Panther IV#25) - Nighthawk joined Iron Man and other pro-registration forces in a fight near the Wakandan embassy against Black Panther and other anti-registration heroes near the Wakandan embassy. Nighthawk was beaten by Falcon and Storm.
(Avengers: The Iniative#8 (fb)) - Nighthawk appeared in Stamford, CT, with several heroes (Ares, Black Widow, Ms. Marvel, Sentry, Wasp, and Wonder Man of the Mighty Avengers, Invisible Woman and Thing of the Fantastic Four, Gargoyle, and Justice) behind Yellowjacket, Iron Man, and Mister Fantastic to demonstrate the power of the new Initiative.
(Avengers: The Initiative#1) - Nighthawk flew around during the arrival of new trainees and later watched MVP complete Camp Hammond's training course in record time.
(Avengers: The Initiative#2) - Having joined the Initiative in Stamford, Connecticut for training as a super-hero (a new policy required by the government for all super humans), Nighthawk responded to a terrorist threat by Hydra alongside several other superhuman operatives.
(Avengers: The Initiative#3) - With Hydra defeated, Nighthawk returned to Camp Hammond with the others.
(Avengers: The Initiative#5 (fb)) - Nighthawk encouraged Constrictor to join a special stealth squad of the Initiative when Henry Peter Gyrich recruited him.
(Avengers: The Initiative#8 (fb)) - Nighthawk was present when a bus of new recruits arrived at Camp Hammond. He watched as the rogue Dragon Man was taken down. Soon, Taskmaster broke up a battle between giants Yellowjacket, Stature, and Ant-Man.
(Avengers: The Initiative#10) - Nighthawk joined with Triathlon, Stature, Gargoyle, Stingray, Hellcat, Cloud 9, Hardball and Komodo to stand against the rampaging clone KIA, but KIA used its Tactigon weapon to blast Nighthawk's wings apart, taking him out of the fight.
(Avengers: The Initiative#11 (fb)) - As the battle with KIA continued, Nighthawk lay unconscious. KIA was later defeated.
(Avengers: The Initiative#12) - Nighthawk, given the duty of presenting purple hearts to those wounded by KIA, met the bizarre Physique at the Camp Hammond Infirmary. He saw Cosntrictor's new bionic arms (nearly apologizing for drafting the Constrictor into the Initiative), witnessed Crusader's miraculous recovery, and told Blitschschlag that Nazis didn't get purple hearts.
(Last Defenders#1 (fb) - BTS) - Nighthawk sought to reform the Defenders team as part of the Initiative and spoke to Gargoyle, Devil-Slayer, and Hellcat about it.
(Last Defenders#1) - Nighthawk and Gargoyle attacked the Brothers Grimm at the Grand Coulee Electric Power Station in Washington State when the villains sought to destroy the facility with explosives. The heroes defeated both villains soundly. Gargoyle confessed he was thinking of leaving the Initiative and return to Christiansboro, but Nighthawk convinced him to wait it out, seeking to include Gargoyle on a new Defenders team. Nighthawk met with Stark aboard the Helicarrier to discuss his Defenders proposal. Dressed in a suit, which annoyed Iron Man, Richmond presented his idea for the team, but Stark turned him down, stating he'd already formed a new team for Nighthawk. He introduced Blazing Skull (Mark Todd) and Colossus, then told the reluctant Richmond that it was up to him to convince She-Hulk to join. He found She-Hulk capturing the Scorcher and convinced her to try to team out just to prove Stark wrong. Given the state of New Jersey and given a headquarters in Hoboken, Nighthawk struggled to motivate the team into acting against the Sons of the Serpent, having heard intel that they were operating in Jersey. He helped them track a missing SHIELD unit, but was shocked to learn Joaquin Pennysworth was the field leader. Refusing to believe Pennysworth was dead, he lead the team to Atlantic City, attacking the Sons in the Trump Plaza casino. The heroes, not acting like a team, put civilians in danger, and Nighthawk struggled to end things and find the missing agents. A giant Quetzalcoatl demon was then summoned and attacked.
(Last Defenders#2 (fb)) - As the demon attacked the buildings, causing high collateral damage, She-Hulk tossed Blazing Skull at it, but Quetzalcoatl put his flames out by batting his wings. The demon then blew fire at Colossus before She-Hulk knocked it into another building, then Blazing Skull defeated it with a fiery blast between the eyes.
(Last Defenders#2) - Stark furiously yelled at the Defenders for their failed mission, collateral damage, and failure to use teamwork. Richmond was defensive, but Stark shut the team down, blowing Richmond's mind. He bid farewell to his teammates, wondering what was next. At the empty headquarters, Richmond intercepted another tracking of Pennysworth's homing device. He and She-Hulk decided to investigate. They found the Serpents' base in West Virginia and fought off several Serpents before finding Joaquin. She-Hulk knocked aside the rest of the Serpents, then Joaquin explained how he'd survived. She-Hulk and Nighthawk began fighting unexpectedly, influenced by the Serpents' sonics, but Joaquin freed them with a whistle he'd prepared. A screen showing the Supreme Serpent and Cheer Chadwick, who were behind the development of the Mad Bomb, appeared and the heroes were threatened.
(Last Defenders#3) - Nighthawk, She-Hulk, and Pennysworth rounded up the rest of the Serpents and Nighthawk was horrified when Pennysworth gunned them down, killing many of them. Pennysworth then triggered his explosives, destroying the bomb as Nighthawk flew them free. Pennysworth collapsed before getting medical treatment at the Helicarrier. Returning to base, Nighthawk received another distress call. Knowing it was against the rules, he accessed the Initiative database for mercenary recruits. He found Paladin and Junta on mercenary assignments and Atlas working for the government. He lead them to an oil platform it the ocean, where they found U-Man and members of the Brand Corporation, including Alvarado, planning to gain illegal resources. They fought back the operatives as two giant Quintronic Men attacked. Nighthawk rushed under the facility and found Krang murdering the guards there.
(Last Defenders#4) - After seeing Krang defeat U-Man, Nighthawk rushed up to see the others finishing the Quintronic Men, though some of the operators had been killed. The Avengers (Sentry, Wasp, Wonder Man) arrived, furious that Nighthawk had responded first, and Nighthawk grew defensive again. On the Helicarrier, Stark and Gyrich berated Richmond for his crime and stripped him of his Nighthawk identity. Richmond, distraught and defensive, threw off his cape and mask and departed. Pennysworth was laid up in the Hellicarrier hospital when Richmond came to visit, discussing the past. Pennysworth told Richmond that he was out of SHIELD for his failure and likely at a desk job now, expressing animosity towards Richmond. Richmond returned to his apartment and destroyed furniture in frustration just before the Son of Satan arrived on his chariot.
(Last Defenders#5) - Son of Satan sought to rejoin the Defenders, but Richmond informed him bitterly that there was no team now, so Son of Satan left. Richmond was then attacked by a severed Recorder's head and transported back in time to just before the Defenders were formed. He landed in front of the Omegatron and saw a suited Yandroth standing before him. Yandroth had Richmond watch as the original Defenders arrived and blundered through the mission. To prove his power over time, Yandroth had Richmond relive when he hit the man with the car, and Richmond realized it was Yandroth he'd hit. Suddenly back at the Omegatron, Richmond wondered about destiny as Yandroth, calling himself the Quantum King, told Richmond he was destiny's pawn. To further prove his power to Richmond, Yandroth created facsimiles of the Squadron Sinister from the power of the Omegatron. Richmond was easily overcome by them until a future incarnation of the Defenders (Krang, Nighthawk, She-Hulk, Son of Satan) appeared to help him.
(Last Defenders#6) - Richmond was shocked to see the bizarre battle take place between these supposedly future heroes and the fake Squadron members. Yandroth, determined that this was the correct Defenders team and that Richmond would be responsible for forming it, then disappeared. Seeing the potential of this team, their success and confidence, Richmond wondered if Yandroth was right. As the heroes disappeared, Richmond realized that Pennysworth was the new Nighthawk, and She-Hulk asked him not to give up on her. The Omegatron then returned Richmond to his own time. Two weeks later, he invited She-Hulk out for dinner and convinced her to try out a new Defenders team away from the Initiative but not fighting against them either. Richmond then found Pennysworth training at a SHIELD facility and convinced him to quit his job and take up the role of Nighthawk. Pennysworth was reluctant, but agreed to do it on his own merit. Richmond purchased the formers Defenders HQ in Hoboken and told off Special Agent Perkins when he tried to chase him off. He then greeted the new team and encouraged them to begin working together.
(New Avengers II#7) - Nighthawk turned down the offer to be Danielle Cage's nanny.
(Fear Itself: Fearsome Four#1) – During a mass fear breakout in New York City, Nighthawk, back in costume, tried tracking down rumors of a destructive green monster, but stopped to quell some rioters, giving into the fear and becoming unnecessarily violent toward the men. He grew determined to fight fear with fear as he met up with She-Hulk and Howard the Duck, who were on the hunt for the Man-Thing. They soon found a group of citizens attacking an unexpected Frankenstein. After a brief skirmish with him, the foursome teamed up against the citizens, but they were soon faced by Man-Thing, who hit them with a blast of energy from the Nexus of All-Realities. They were all transformed, Nighthawk into a deadly bird-man hybrid, and they rushed to attack Man-Thing.
(Fear Itself: Fearsome Four#2) – Things got crazy-violent for a time until Man-Thing moved away and they reverted back to normal. Howard the Duck did their best to organize the four into a fighting unit, and they moved as Frankenstein’s monster explained his origins. They soon found Man-Thing subdued by Psycho-Man, who easily overwhelmed Nighthawk. When he revived, he attacked Man-Thing, leaving Howard to try and stop Nighthawk, but they were all shocked when an alternate version of the Fantastic Four (Ghost Rider, Hulk, Spider-Man, Wolverine) attacked.
(Fear Itself: Fearsome Four#3) – Manipulated by Psycho-Man, the alternate Fantastic Four tried attacking Man-Thing, leaving Nighthawk and his allies to stand against them. Nighthawk punched Wolverine, hit Spider-Man with a trash barrel, and yanked Ghost Rider off his motorcycle. With Man-Thing super-charged with fear, they launched into another attack, and Spider-Man held Nighthawk while Wolverine punched him. Howard then shocked them all by pulling out his secret weapon, the No-Thing, to send the alternate heroes home, making Nighthawk angry that he hadn’t used it before. However, when Howard turned to use it on Man-Thing, the device wouldn’t work.
(Fear Itself: Fearsome Four#4) – As Man-Thing burned out of control, the heroes attacked, but proved ineffective. Howard gave a long speech about how they would have to face up to the stored fears Man-Thing was unleashing in order to make the No-Thing work. In a vision of a crowd attacking him, Nighthawk realized that he couldn’t overcome his fears by scaring others. Howard decided not to use the No-Thing as a cascade of manifested fears washed over them. Instead, their bravery cancelled out Man-Thing’s powers and he reverted to normal. Nighthawk planned to return to the streets to fight crime.
(Vengeance I#1) – Set up by Pennysworth, Richmond met with former SHIELD agent Fritch and discovered another former agent (Larry Young, whose mind had been replaced by Jack Truman) had been leaking valuable information. The Defenders defeated Gargantus.
(Vengeance I#2) – At his riding academy, Richmond briefed the Defenders on the intel they were tracking, and Son of Satan warned them of an impending evil.
(Vengeance I#3) – Tracking down Son of Satan’s premonition, the Defenders (Krang, She-Hulk, Son of Satan) arrived in the dimension, battled back the Braak’nhud, and the Teen Brigade rushed away. Richmond watched as Nighthawk apprehended Agent Young, and revealed he knew him as Truman.
(Vengeance I#4) – Richmond and Pennysworth questioned Truman, who referenced his history, letting them know the Deathlok from the Extechop program was now in a refuse pile somewhere. They toasted to saving the world.
(Vengeance I#5) – Pennysworth and Richmond watched Truman leave.
(Vengeance I#6) – Truman notified Richmond and Pennysworth about a plot to kill Dr. Doom (Vernard) in Latveria. They, with Krang, faced off against the Young Masters with the Teen Brigade and Truman. As Ultimate Nullifier, Nighthawk, Executioner, and Egghead had a stand-off around Vernard, the In-Betweener reappeared and the Braak’nhud attacked. Krang slashed open Radioactive Kid’s suit, so Nighthawk rushed him off site to contain him in lead wrapping. They were soon joined by Son of Satan, She-Hulk, and Ms. America. As they were nearly overwhelmed, UN fired two bullets into the two sides of the In-Betweener and waves of chaos and order spilled off of him, absorbing the Braak’nhud into him before he disappeared. Vernard allowed the others to depart peacefully.
Comments: Created by Roy Thomas, Sal Buscema, and Sam Grainger.
Nighthawk was used in Civil War: Front Line#6/4 as a visual demonstration for a poem being depicted.
Nighthawk had profiles in the the Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe I#14, the Deluxe Edition#18, the Master Edition, the All-New Handbook of the Marvel Universe#8, and the Civil War: Battle Damage Report.
Nighthawk was one of the
characters She-Hulk saw in Sensational She-Hulk#53 in the Postmortem
Hall, when she had seemingly died.
In Marvel Comics History
of the Marvels, it is noted
that the Earth-616 Marvel Comics published Nighthawk
comics until his battle with Daredevil.
Nighthawk was just
presumed dead, but Dead Ringer was still able to replicate his form.
Maybe Dead Ringer's power worked differently than he thought himself or
he took tissue from an alternate counterpart of Nighthawk (Squadron
Supreme, Earth-712 maybe?).
The names for Nighthawk's parents were revealed in Nighthawk's Master Edition profile.
Thanks to Markus Raymond for adding a few missed appearances.
Profile by Chadman.
Nighthawk is loosely connected to (by an alternate reality):
Nighthawk has no known connections to:
Jo-Jo and Weepin' Willie
(Daredevil I#62) - Jo-Jo and Weepin' Willie robbed a cinema before being attacked by Daredevil, then Nighthawk. Nighthawk defeated them but later released them, much to the crooks' surprise.
Fred the Policeman
(Defenders I#19) - Fred and other officers tried to delay the Defenders super team after a big battle at Richmond Enterprises. Dr. Strange erased their memories of this event.
(Defenders I#22) - Ginny worried about Kyle when he spent time at a party out on the balcony. She implored him to come in and forget his lost love, Trish Starr, and he agreed, but they were interrupted by a real estate man, Harold Holliman, that Kyle quickly put in his place. Kyle kissed Ginny on the cheek and departed.
(Defenders I#39) - Kyle Richmond sought Commissioner Feingold's aid in tracking down the superhero Valkyrie. Feingold discovered she was incarcerated, then found out there was a riot at the women's prison.
(Defenders I#51 - BTS) - Mr. Verderkor, an acquaintance of Kyle Richmond's, worked at Empire State University. He died three years after retiring.
(Defenders I#52 - BTS) - Gail, secretary at Richmond Enterprises, let Patsy Walker in to see Kyle Richmond.
Dr. Herschel Thatcher
(Dr. Strange II#29 (fb) - BTS) - Dr. Thatcher was supervising the implementation of a new stardrive for the London branch of Richmond Enterprises. A series of thefts of various components and seeming visitations by demons left Thatcher crazed. When company owner Kyle Richmond questioned him, Thatcher appeared unhinged and was soon murdered by the Death-Stalker, who later appeared as Thatcher's ghost.
--Dr. Strange II#29
H. Howard Bradley
(Dr. Strange II#29 (fb) - BTS) - The assistant to Dr. Thatcher at the London branch of Richmond Enterprises, Bradley was questioned about the mental status of Thatcher, who'd been beset by 'demons' stealing project components, shortly before they found Thatcher murdered.
(Dr. Strange II#29) - Bradley started receiving visits from Death-Stalker, posing as Thatcher's ghost. Frightened, he delivered components of the developing stardrive to 'Thatcher.' Dr. Strange and Nighthawk soon ferreted out the truth, using the Eye of Agamotto, and defeated Death-Stalker.
--Dr. Strange II#29 (Dr. Strange II#29 (fb), 29
(Dr. Strange II#29 - BTS) - The secretary at the London branch of Richmond Enterprises, Millie directed H. Howard Bradley to Kyle Richmond's whereabouts.
--Dr. Strange II#29
(Defenders I#88) - After Nighthawk rescued a plane from hijackers, Miss Tolliver interviewed him, mistakenly calling him Nightwing.
(Nighthawk#1) - A medical doctor who tended to the comatose Kyle Richmond, Nighthawk, for years, Doctor Hildebrant came to know his patient as John Doe. When Nighthawk awakened, Doctor Hildebrant and his aides discovered Richmond's true identity and helped nurse the hero back to health, aiding him with physical therapy and extreme light sensitivity.
(Nighthawk#1) - Student Becky Thomas was walking through New York City when she came across a man who'd been beaten up. She conferred with Detective Ross about the tragedy, not realizing the hero Nighthawk had beat the man up to save Becky, having had a precognitive vision about her death.
(Nighthawk#1) - Detective Ross investigated a man who'd been assaulted by a super hero. He talked to student Becky Thomas about it.
Renee and Karen
(Marvel Team-Up I#101) - Two young women camped in the woods to get away from life. Renee played Beatles' songs on her guitar while Karen drank too much wine. When Nighthawk and Spider-Man rushed past, Karen decided to stop drinking and retire to the tent.
--Marvel Team-Up I#101
Defenders II#8, p10, pan2 (main)
Defenders II#1, p22, pan2 (out of costume)
Daredevil I#62, p13, pan6 (original costume)
Nighthawk I#1, cover (armor, and other costumes)
Last Defenders#1, Cover (Last Defenders costume)
Daredevil I#62, p3, pan3 (Jo-Jo and Weepin' Willie)
Defenders I#19, p5, pan6 (Fred the policeman)
Defenders I#22, p7, pan2 (Ginny)
Defenders I#39, p11, pan7 (Commissioner Feingold)
Dr. Strange I#29, p4, pan4 (Thatcher)
Dr. Strange I#29, p8, pan7 (Bradley)
Defenders I#88, p14, pan5 (Miss Tolliver)
Nighthawk I#1, p6, pan3 (Dr. Hildebrant)
Nighthawk I#2, p8, pan4 (Becky Thomas)
Nighthawk I#2, p10, pan5 (Detective Ross)
Marvel Team-Up I#101, p7, pan2 (Renee and Karen)
Avengers I#69-71 (October-December, 1969) - Roy Thomas (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Sam Grainger (inker), Stan Lee (editor)
Daredevil I#62 (March, 1970) - Roy Thomas (writer), Gene Colan (penciler), Syd Shores (inker), Stan Lee (editor)
Defenders I#12 (February, 1974) - Len Wein (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Jack Abel (inker), Roy Thomas (editor)
Defenders I#13 (May, 1974) - Len Wein (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Klaus Janson (inker), Roy Thomas (editor)
Defenders I#14 (July, 1974) - Len Wein (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Dan Green (penciler/inker), Roy Thomas (editor)
Defenders I#15 (September, 1974) - Len Wein (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Klaus Janson (penciler/inker), Roy Thomas (editor)
Defenders I#16 (October, 1974) - Len Wein (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Mike Esposito (inker), Roy Thomas (editor)
Giant-Size Defenders#2 (October, 1972) - Len Wein (writer), Gil Kane (penciler), Klaus Janson (inker), Roy Thomas (editor)
Defenders I#17-19 (November, 1974-January, 1975) - Len Wein (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Dan Green (inker), Roy Thomas (editor)
Giant-Size Defenders#3 (January, 1975) - Steve Gerber, Len Wein, & Jim Starlin (writers), Jim Starlin (pencilers), Dan Adkins, Don Newton, & Jim Mooney (pencilers/inkers), Roy Thomas (editor)
Defenders I#20 (February, 1975) - Steve Gerber (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Vince Colletta (penciler/inker), Roy Thomas (editor)
Defenders I#21 (March, 1975) - Steve Gerber (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Sal Trapani (inker), Roy Thomas (editor)
Giant-Size Defenders#4 (April, 1975) - Steve Gerber, Don McGregor, Roger Slifer (writers), Don Heck (penciler), Vince Colletta (inker), Len Wein (editor)
Defenders I#22 (April, 1975) - Steve Gerber (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Mike Esposito (penciler/inker), Len Wein (editor)
Marvel Team-Up I#33 (May, 1975) - Gerry Conway (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Vince Colletta (inker), Len Wein (editor)
Defenders I#23 (May, 1975) - Steve Gerber (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Vince Colletta (inker), Len Wein (editor)
Marvel Team-Up I#34 (June, 1975) - Gerry Conway (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Vince Colletta (inker), Len Wein (editor)
Defenders I#24 (June, 1975) - Steve Gerber (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Bob McLeod (inker), Len Wein (editor)
Defenders I#25 (July, 1975) - Steve Gerber (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Jack Abel (inker), Len Wein (editor)
Giant-Size Defenders#5 (July, 1975) - Steve Gerber, Gerry Conway, Roger Slifer, Chris Claremont, & Scott Edelman (writers), Don Heck (penciler), Jim Mooney, Mike Esposito, & Dave Hunt (inkers), Len Wein (writer/editor)
Defenders I#26 (August, 1975) - Steve Gerber (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Vince Colletta (inker), Len Wein (editor)
Defenders I#27 (September, 1975) - Steve Gerber (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Vince Colletta (penciler/inker), Len Wein (editor)
Defenders I#28 (October, 1975) - Steve Gerber (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Frank Giacoia & John Tartaglione (pencilers/inkers), Marv Wolfman (editor)
Defenders I#29 (November, 1975) - Steve Gerber (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Vince Colletta (penciler/inker), Len Wein (editor)
Defenders I#30 (December, 1975) - Bill Mantlo (writer), Sam Grainger (penciler), Jack Abel (inker), Marv Wolfman (editor)
Marvel Treasury Edition#12 (1976) - Steve Gerber (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Klaus Janson (inker), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Defenders I#31-34 (January-April, 1976) - Steve Gerber (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Jim Mooney (penciler/inker), Marv Wolfman (editor)
Defenders I#35 (May, 1976) - Steve Gerber (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Klaus Janson (penciler/inker), Marv Wolfman (editor)
Defenders I#36 (June, 1976) - Steve Gerber & Mary Skrenes (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Jim Mooney (penciler/inker), Marv Wolfman (editor)
Defenders I#37-40 (July-October, 1976) - Steve Gerber (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Klaus Janson (penciler/inker), Marv Wolfman (editor)
Defenders Annual#1 (October, 1976) - Steve Gerber (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Klaus Janson (penciler/inker), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Defenders I#41 (November, 1976) - Steve Gerber (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Klaus Janson (penciler/inker), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Defenders I#42-43 (December, 1976-January, 1977) - Gerry Conway (writer), Keith Giffen (penciler), Klaus Janson (penciler/inker), Gerry Conway (editor)
Incredible Hulk II#206-207 (December, 1976-January, 1977) - Len Wein (writer/editor), Sal Buscema (penciler), Joe Staton (penciler/inker)
Defenders I#44-45 (February-March, 1977) - Gerry Conway, Roger Slifer, David Kraft (writers), Keith Giffen (penciler), Klaus Janson (penciler/inker), Gerry Conway (editor)
Defenders I#46 (April, 1977) - Roger Slifer, David Kraft (writers), Keith Giffen (penciler), Klaus Janson (penciler/inker), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Defenders I#47 (May, 1977) - David Anthony Kraft, Roger Slifer, John Warner (writers), Keith Giffen (penciler), Klaus Janson (penciler/inker), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Defenders I#48 (June, 1977) - David Anthony Kraft, Don McGregor (writers), Keith Giffen (penciler), Dan Green (penciler/inker), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Defenders I#49 (July, 1977) - David Anthony Kraft (writer), Keith Giffen (penciler), Mike Royer (penciler/inker), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Marvel Comics Super Special#1 (1977) - Steve Gerber (writer), Alan Weiss, John Buscema, Rich Buckler & Sal Buscema (pencils), Al Milgrom (inks), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Defenders I#50 (August, 1977) - David Anthony Kraft (writer), Keith Giffen (penciler), Mike Royer (penciler/inker), John Tartaglione, Dave Cockrum (inkers), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Defenders I#51 (September, 1977) - David Anthony Kraft (writer), Keith Giffen (penciler), Klaus Janson (inker), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Defenders I#52 (October, 1977) - David Kraft (writer), Keith Giffen (penciler), Chic Stone (inker), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Defenders I#53 (November, 1977) - David Kraft (writer), Dave Cockrum, Keith Giffen, Mike Golden & Terry Austin (penciler/inker), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Defenders I#54 (December, 1977) - David Anthony Kraft (writer), Keith Giffen (penciler), Mike Golden (inker), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Marvel Two-in-One#34 (December, 1977) - Marv Wolfman (writer/editor), Ron Wilson (penciler), Pablo Marcos (inker)
Avengers I#167 (January, 1978) - Jim Shooter (writer), George Perez (penciler), Pablo Marcos (inker), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Defenders I#55-56 (January-February, 1978) - David Kraft (writer), Carmine Infantino (penciler), Klaus Janson (inker), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Defenders I#57 (March, 1978) - Chris Claremont & Gerry Conway (writers), George Tuska & Dave Cockrum (pencilers), Dan Green (inker), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Defenders I#58 (April, 1978) - David Anthony Kraft (writer), Ed Hannigan (penciler), Klaus Janson & Dan Green (inkers), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Defenders I#59-60 (May-June, 1978) - David Kraft (writer), Ed Hannigan (penciler), Dan Green (inker), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Dr. Strange II#29 (June, 1978) - Roger Stern (writer), Tom Sutton (penciler), Ernie Chan (inker), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Defenders I#61 (July, 1978) - David Kraft (writer), Ed Hannigan (penciler), Bob Lubbers (inker), Archie Goodwin (editor)
Defenders I#62-63 (August-September, 1978) - David Kraft (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Jim Mooney (inker), Jim Shooter (editor)
Defenders I#64 (October, 1978) - David Kraft (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Don Perlin (inker), Bob Hall (editor)
Defenders I#65 (November, 1978) - David Kraft (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Bruce Patterson (inker), Bob Hall (editor)
Defenders I#66 (December, 1978) - David Kraft (writer), Ed Hannigan (penciler/inker), Bob Hall (editor)
Defenders I#67 (January, 1979) - David Kraft (writer), Ed Hannigan (writer/penciler), Bruce Patterson (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#68 (February, 1979) - David Kraft & Ed Hannigan (writers), Herb Trimpe (penciler), Pablo Marcos (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#69 (March, 1979) - Jim Shooter & Mary Jo Duffy (writers), Herb Trimpe (penciler), Al Milgrom (inker/editor)
Defenders I#70 (April, 1979) - Ed Hannigan (writer), Herb Trimpe (penciler), Mike Esposito (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#71 (May, 1979) - Ed Hannigan (writer), Herb Trimpe (penciler), Jack Abel (penciler/inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#72 (June, 1979) - Ed Hannigan (writer), Herb Trimpe (penciler), Fred Kida (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#73 (July, 1979) - Ed Hannigan (writer), Herb Trimpe (penciler), Mike Esposito (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#74 (August, 1979) - Ed Hannigan (writer), Herb Trimpe (penciler), Steve Mitchell (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#75 (September, 1979) - Ed Hannigan (writer), Herb Trimpe (penciler), Mike Esposito (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#76 (October, 1979) - Steven Grant (writer), Herb Trimpe (penciler), Steve Mitchell (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#77 (November, 1979) - Steven Grant & Mark Gruenwald (writer), Herb Trimpe (penciler), Chic Stone & Steve Mitchell (inkers), Al Milgrom (inker/editor)
Fantastic Four Annual#14 (1979) - Marv Wolfman (writer), George Perez (writer/penciler), Pablo Marcos (inker), Marv Wolfman (editor)
Defenders I#79 (January, 1980) - Ed Hannigan (writer/penciler), Herb Trimpe (penciler), Mike Esposito (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#80 (February, 1980) - Ed Hannigan (writer), Herb Trimpe (penciler), Dan Green (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#81 (March, 1980) - Ed Hannigan (writer), Herb Trimpe (penciler), Jack Abel (penciler/inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#82-83 (April-May, 1980) - Ed Hannigan (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Joe Sinnott (penciler/inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#84 (June, 1980) - Ed Hannigan (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Tex Blaisdell (penciler/inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#85 (July, 1980) - Ed Hannigan (writer), Herb Trimpe (penciler), Jim Mooney (penciler/inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#86 (August, 1980) - Ed Hannigan (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Pablo Marcos (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#87 (September, 1980) - Ed Hannigan (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Pablo Marcos (penciler/inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#88 (October, 1980) - Ed Hannigan (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Pablo Marcos (penciler/inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#89 (November, 1980) - David Kraft & Ed Hannigan (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Pablo Marcos (penciler/inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#90-91 (December, 1980-January, 1981) - Ed Hannigan (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Pablo Marcos (penciler/inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Marvel Team-Up I#10/1 (January, 1981) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Jerry Bingham (penciler), Mike Esposito (inker), Denny O'Neil (editor)
Marvel Team-Up I#10/2 (January, 1981) - Mike W. Barr (writer), Steve Ditko (penciler/inker), Denny O'Neil (editor)
Defenders I#92 (February, 1981) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Pablo Marcos (penciler/inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#93 (March, 1981) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Joe Sinnott, Frank Giacoia, others (inkers), Al Milgrom (inker/editor)
Defenders I#94-102 (April-December, 1981) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Joe Sinnott (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Marvel Graphic Novel: Death of Captain Marvel Graphic Novel#1 (1982) - Jim Starlin (writer, penciler, inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Tales to Astonish II#13/2 (December, 1980) - Naomi Basner (writer), Alan Kupperberg (penciler), Bill Wray (inker), Danny Fingeroth (editor)
Defenders I#103-104 (January-February, 1982) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Joe Sinnott (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Contest of Champions I#1-3 (June-August, 1982) - Mark Gruenwald, Steven Grant, Bill Mantlo (writers), John Romita, Jr. (penciler), Pablo Marcos (inker), Tom DeFalco (editor)
Captain America I#268 (April, 1982) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Mike Zeck (penciler), John Beatty (inker), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Defenders I#106 (April, 1982) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Sam Trapani, Rick Magyar, Jack Abel (inkers), Al Milgrom (inker/editor)
Defenders I#107 (May, 1982) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Mike Esposito, Chic Stone, Sal Trapani (inkers), Al Milgrom (inker/editor)
Defenders I#117 (March, 1983) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Jack Abel (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#119 (May, 1983) - Steven Grant (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Jack Abel (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Captain America I#429 (July, 1994) - Mark Gruenwald (writer), Dave Hoover (penciler), Danny Bulanadi (inker), Mike Rockwitz (editor)
Silver Surfer Annual#6 (1993) - Ron Marz (writer), Joe Phillips (pencils), Tom Christopher & others (inks), Craig Anderson (editor)
Nighthawk#1-3 (September-November, 1998) - Jim Krueger (writer), Richard Case (penciler), Bob Wiacek (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders II#1 (March, 2001) - Kurt Busiek (writer), Erik Larsen (writer/penciler), Klaus Janson (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders II#2 (April, 2001) - Kurt Busiek (writer), Erik Larsen (writer/penciler), Klaus Janson, Dick Giordano (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders II#3 (May, 2001) - Kurt Busiek (writer), Erik Larsen (writer/penciler), Klaus Janson (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders II#4 (June, 2001) - Kurt Busiek, Erik Larsen (writers) Ron Frenz (penciler), Scott Hanna (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders II#5 (July, 2001) - Kurt Busiek (writer), Erik Larsen (writer/penciler), Sal Buscema (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders II#6 (August, 2001) - Kurt Busiek (writer), Erik Larsen (writer/penciler), Al Gordon (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders II#7 (September, 2001) - Kurt Busiek (writer), Erik Larsen (writer/penciler), Sal Buscema (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Thunderbolts I#57 (October, 2001) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Patrick Zircher (pencils), Al Vey (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders II#8 (October, 2001) - Kurt Busiek, Erik Larsen, Eric Stephenson (writers), Ron Frenz (penciler), Al Vey (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders II#9 (November, 2001) - Kurt Busiek, Erik Larsen, Eric Stephenson (writers), Ron Frenz (penciler), Scott Hanna (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders II#10 (December, 2001) - Kurt Busiek, Eric Stephenson (writers), Erik Larsen (writer/penciler), Scott Hanna (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Thunderbolts I#58 (January, 2002) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Patrick Zircher (pencils), Al Vey (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders II#11 (January, 2002) - Kurt Busiek (writer), Erik Larsen (writer/penciler), Sal Buscema (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders II#12 (February, 2002) - Jo Duffy, Kurt Busiek (writers), Ivan Reis (penciler), Randy Emberlin (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Captain America III#50 (February, 2002) - Evan Dorkin (writer), Kevin Maguire (artist), Andrew Lis (editor)
Order#1 (April, 2002) - Jo Duffy, Kurt Busiek (writers), Matt Haley (penciler), Dan Panosian (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Order#2 (May, 2002) - Jo Duffy, Kurt Busiek (writers), Chris Batista (penciler), Dan Panosian (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Order#3 (June, 2002) - Jo Duffy, Kurt Busiek (writers), Matt Haley, Luke Ross (pencilers), Dan Panosian (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Order#4 (July, 2002) - Jo Duffy, Kurt Busiek (writers), Dan Jurgens (penciler), Bob Layton (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Order#5 (August, 2002) - Jo Duffy, Kurt Busiek (writers), Ivan Reis (penciler), Jose Pimentel (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Order#6 (September, 2002) - Jo Duffy, Kurt Busiek (writers), Matt Haley (penciler), Dan Panosian (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Alias#25-26 (October-November, 2003) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Mark Bagley (artist), Tom Brevoort (editor)
JLA/Avengers#4 (February, 2004) - Kurt Busiek (writer), George Perez (artist), Tom Brevoort & Dan Raspler (editors)
Thing II#1-3 (January-March, 2006) - Dan Slott (writer), Andrea Divito (penciler/inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
New Thunderbolts#15-16 (January-February, 2006) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Rick Leonardi (penciler), Cam Smith (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
She-Hulk II#3 (February, 2006) - Dan Slott (writer), Scott Kolins (penciler), Marcelo Sosa (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
New Thunderbolts#17-18 (March-April, 2006) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Tom Grummett (penciler), Gary Erskine (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Thunderbolts II#100 (May, 2006) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Tom Grummett (penciler), Gary Erskine (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Thunderbolts II#101 (June, 2006) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Dave Ross (penciler), Cam Smith (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Thunderbolts II#102 (July, 2006) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Tom Grummett (penciler), Gary Erskine (inker), Molly Lazer (editor)
Thing II#8 (August, 2006) - Dan Slott (writer), Kieron Dwyer (penciler/inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Civil War#1 (July, 2006) - Mark Millar (writer), Steve McNiven (penciler), Dexter Vines (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Wolverine III#42 (July, 2006) - Marc Guggenheim (writer), Humberto Ramos (penciler), Carlos Cuevas (inker), Axel Alonso (editor)
Civil War#4 (October, 2006) - Mark Millar (writer), Steve McNiven (penciler), Dexter Vines (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Civil War: Front Line#6 (October, 2006) - Paul Jenkins (writer), Ramon Bachs (penciler), John Lucas (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Thunderbolts II#105-106 (October-November, 2006) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Tom Grummett (penciler), Gary Erskine (inker), Molly Lazer (editor)
Civil War#5 (November, 2006) - Mark Millar (writer), Steve McNiven (penciler), Dexter Vines (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Black Panther IV#25 (April, 2007) - Reginald Hudlin (writer), Marcus To (pencils), Don Ho & Jeff De Los Santos (inks), Axel Alonso (editor)
Avengers: The Initiative#1-3 (June-August, 2007) - Dan Slott (writer), Stefano Caselli (artist), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Avengers: The Initiative#5 (October, 2007) - Dan Slott (writer), Stefano Caselli (penciler/inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Avengers: The Initiative#8 (February, 2008) - Dan Slott, Christos N. Gage (writers), Stefano Caselli (penciler/inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Avengers: The Initiative#10-11 (May-June, 2008) - Dan Slott, Christos N. Gage (writers), Stefano Caselli (artist), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Avengers: The Initiative#12 (June, 2008) - Dan Slott, Christos N. Gage (writers), Steve Uy (penciler/inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Last Defenders#1-6 (May-October, 2008) - Joe Casey (writer), Jim Muniz (penciler), Cam Smith (inker), Stephen Wacker (editor)
New Avengers II#7 (February, 2011) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Stuart Immonen (penciler), Wade Von Grawbadger (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Fear Itself: Fearsome Four I#1 (August, 2011) – Brandon Montclare (writer), Michael Wm Kaluta, Ryan Bodenheim, Simon Bisley (artists), Mark Paniccia (editor)
Fear Itself: Fearsome Four I#2 (September, 2011) – Brandon Montclare (writer), Simon Bisley, Ryan Bodenheim, Ray-Anthony Height, Don Ho (artists), Mark Paniccia (editor)
Fear Itself: Fearsome Four I#3 (October, 2011) – Brandon Montclare (writer), Tom Grummett, Ray-Anthony Height, Henry Flint (pencilers), Rick Ketcham, Henry Flint (inkers), Mark Paniccia (editor)
Fear Itself: Fearsome Four I#4 (November, 2011) – Brandon Montclare (writer), Tim Green, Ray-Anthony Height, Rick Ketchum, Michael Wm. Kaluta (artists), Mark Paniccia (editor)
Vengeance I#1-6 (September, 2011-February, 2012) – Joe Casey (writer), Nick Dragotta (penciler/inker), Tom Brennan (editor)
Last updated: 11/13/13
Any Additions/Corrections? please let me know.
Non-Marvel Copyright info
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