Membership:Al Gentle, Theodore Kroeber, Philip le Guin, Georgia Orr, Over-Mind (through control), Ursula Richards, Mindy Williams;

Purpose: The Psychics were held captive by the Secret Empire, who tried to use them to start a psychic war with the Soviet Union on more than one occasion;
    As the composite being Chorus, before their mind was absorbed into the Over-Mind, they fought for various good causes

Affiliations: Beast (McCoy), Vera Cantor, Captain America (Rogers), Daredevil, Defenders, Doctor Strange, Dolly Donahue, Gargoyle (Christians), Hulk (Banner), Iceman, Nighthawk, the population of Millwood, New Jersey, Scarlet Witch, Silver Surfer, Son of Satan, Squadron Supreme (Amphibian, Arcanna, Cap'n Hawk, Doctor Spectrum, Golden Archer, Hyperion, Lady Lark, Nighthawk [Richmond of Earth-S], Nuke, Power Princess, Tom Thumb, the Whizzer), Sub-Mariner, Vision, Valkyrie (Brunnhilde);
    formerly Morgan MacNeil Hardy, August Masters, Professor Power

Enemies: Morgan MacNeil Hardy, August Masters, Miracle Man, Null the Living Darkness, Professor Power;
    formerly Over-Mind

Aliases: The Psychics

Base of Operations: None,
                                     (formerly) Millwood, New Jersey,
                                     (formerly) Doctor Strange's Sanctum Sanctorum,
                                     (formerly) Mt. Charteris,
                                     (formerly) Carriwhite Acres

First Appearance: (1st project) Captain America I#264 (December, 1981),
                                 (2nd project) Defenders I#102 (December, 1981),
                                 (3rd project) Captain America I#268 (April, 1982),
                                 (as unified being) Defenders I#112 (October, 1982)

(Captain America I#264 (fb)) - Professor Power's Secret Empire sought to start a psychic world war with Russia.  The Secret Empire put together a plot to find American psychics or telepaths and to use them as one force with which to start this war.  Professor Power appointed August Masters to head this project.  Masters, in turn, appointed Morgan McNeil Hardy to implement the plan.

(Captain America I#264 (fb)) - After much searching, Hardy came across four individuals with psychic powers, including Ursula Richards, Philip LeGuin, and two other unidentified psychics (all four pictured to the left).  He paid them large sums of money to become involved.  It is to be supposed that the psychics did not know what their powers were to be used for.  Instead of launching the psychic war, however, Hardy planned to use the psychics, now strapped to a machine, to reform America the way he saw fit.  The psychics, however, subconsciously manipulated Hardy's vision into versions of their own perfect Americas.  Ursula was able to break through in each of these realities and push Captain America toward coming to stop Hardy. 

(Captain America I#264) - Captain America got drawn into each psychics' ideal version of America.  In one reality (Ursula's), he was a celebrated hero; in another (the bald man's), African-Americans were considered inferior and treated as such; in another (Philip's), kids played eternally and never grew up; and in a fourth (the old woman's), the German Reich ruled the world and all other races, including mutants, were subjugated.  When Hardy strapped himself into the machine, the system overloaded, killing the bald man and the old woman, and seemingly killing Hardy.  Ursula and Philip returned to their lives.

(Defenders I#102 (fb)) - August Masters took over the plot, and gathered more psychics to Carriwhite Acres, a false medical hospital.  The most powerful psychic was the mentally unstable Mindy Williams. 

(Defenders I#102) - When Nighthawk, the former love of Mindy, investigated, Masters had Mindy attack him, but she soon reversed her attack and destroyed Carriwhite Acres in a mental assault.

(Thunderbolts I#33 (fb)) - Masters set up a new base at Mt. Charteris in Burton Canyon, Colorado.

(Captain America I#268 (fb)) - More psychics were moved to Mt. Charteris, and kept there in restraints in preparation for a new psychic attack on Russia.  Ursula and Philip, their powers stronger than before, were recaptured by force, as was Mindy. 

(Captain America I#268) - Ursula and Philip were able to send a telepathic distress call to Captain America.  Ursula and Philip were then able to revive the unconscious captives Gargoyle, Hellcat, and Valkyrie, who, with Captain America, freed the psychics and tried to lead them out.  However, when Masters threatened to self-destruct the base, the heroes and the psychics were again taken captive.

(Defenders I#106) - Doctor Strange, Daredevil, Beast, and Son of Satan responded to a distress call put out by Mindy.   Ursula, Philip, Mindy, and three other psychics combined their minds into one.  The single mind possessed Kyle Richmond's (Nighthawk) form and set the self-destruct sequence off for Mt. Charteris, willing to sacrifice themselves to stop the war.  After the heroes escaped, the psychics, Richmond, Masters, and other Secret Empire operatives exploded with the building.

(Defenders I#115 (fb)) - Fully expecting to have died in the explosion, the six Psychics members were shocked to find themselves fused into one astral being: Chorus  Due to Mindy's great love for Kyle Richmond, they sought to save him from death by shunting him across the dimensions.  In their haste, however, they accidentally saved August Masters by sending him to Earth-712 (home of the Squadron Supreme).  Chorus followed Masters to Earth-712, where they found Null the Living Darkness, through the Over-Mind, seeking to rule the world, and an alternate Kyle Richmond as President of the United States.  When Over-Mind attempted to take mental control of Richmond, he decimated Richmond's consciousness, causing Null to cast Richmond to the side and to create a biological construct of Richmond to act as the President.  The Chorus found the maddened former president and imprinted the memories of Earth-616's Kyle into his form, causing him to believe he was the Earth-616 Kyle.  They then brought Kyle (as Nighthawk) to Hyperion, deposed leader of the Squadron Supreme.

(Defenders I#109 (BTS)) - Chorus brought Doctor Strange, Hulk, Sub-Mariner, and Son of Satan through the dimensions to aid Kyle and Hyperion in saving Earth-712.

(Defenders I#112) - Doctor Strange brought several more Earth heroes (Beast, Gargoyle, Scarlet Witch, Silver Surfer, Vision, Valkyrie) to Earth-712 to aid them.  Over the Earth, Chorus floated, amorphously.   By focusing their energies, they achieved a physical form, Mindy William's face.

(Defenders I#113) - Chorus revealed itself to the heroes, and brought them to the moon to battle Null and Over-Mind, and the mentally controlled Squadron Supreme.  The strain of the teleportation caused Chorus to lose cohesiveness temporarily.  The heroes battled, defeated, and freed the Squadron Supreme.  When August Masters assassinated the Richmond-construct, Null was released.

(Defenders I#114) - Achieving a physical form again, Chorus joined the heroes in their battle.  When physical attacks on Null failed, Chorus led the heroes in forming a psycho-spiritual union focused through Chorus and into one astral being.  Powered by the consciousnesses of the Defenders and the Squadron Supreme (some of them had to be forced into the union), Chorus focused an attack on Null, who was drawing his power from the millions of minds contained in the Over-Mind's form.  When both Null and Chorus exploded, Chorus quickly entered Over-Mind's form, and they were drawn into Null.  Chorus was able to awaken the goodness of the S'Raphh (the long dead race that made up Null), and facing that goodness caused Null to cease to exist.  Chorus then moved into now uninhabited body of the Over-Mind.  Chorus was shocked to learn that the true memories of Earth-712's Kyle were reawakened. 

(Defenders I#115) - Chorus, in Over-Mind, hastily explained what happened after the explosion, leaving the Earth-712 Kyle furious.  Chorus joined the Defenders in returning to Earth-616.

(Defenders I#116) - Chorus (in Over-Mind) moved into Doctor Strange's mansion and decided to remain with the Defenders.  Now referring to himself as an "us," Over-Mind sensed a loneliness in Doctor Strange.  In an attempt to comfort him, Over-Mind used the Cauldron of the Cosmos to show Strange the recent love developments between Son of Satan and Hellcat, Beast and Vera Cantor, Sub-Mariner and Valkyrie, and Gargoyle and Dolly Donahue.  Feeling enlightened, Strange and Over-Mind flew into the air and put on a fireworks display for their teammates.

(Defenders I#117) - Chorus, shifting the Over-Mind's form to Mindy's, said a final goodbye to Kyle at a wake service.  Chorus realized that it could never move on until it gave closure to each of its component parts, and Doctor Strange and Gargoyle agreed to accompany it on its quests.  Philip LeGuin learned how his family and friends had moved on since his 'death' in Lakewood, New Jersey.  Ursula Richards confronted her rage about poverty in the South Bronx.  The results of the others' quests are unknown.  Chorus, now freed from the past, prepared itself for the future, and agreed to stay with the Defenders.

(Defenders I#120) - Chorus helped track down the missing Son of Satan through Patsy's connection with him.  He then flew with the Defenders to find him.

(Defenders I#121) - The Defenders battled psychic constructs made by the Miracle Man, then found the villain and Son of Satan in a monastery.  To demonstrate his powers, Miracle Man brought new life to a town in Indonesia, impressing Over-Mind.  Realizing the corruption of the villain's powers, Over-Mind attacked, but Miracle Man turned his powers back on him.  Hellcat and a weakened Over-Mind combined their mental talents to drive Son of Satan's Darksoul out of Miracle Man, defeating the villain.

(Defenders I#122) -  Chorus/Over-Mind joined the Defenders in wishing well Hellcat and Son of Satan on their engagement, meeting new member Iceman, and going out to dinner.

(Marvel Comics Presents I#40/4 (fb)) - Chorus/Over-Mind wandered aimlessly, searching for a purpose, until he came to the town of Millwood, New Jersey, where he helped the people survive a deadly exposure to a toxic spill. They believed that they were still healthy and living normal lives despite the fact that they were all dying and undergoing heavy medical treatment.

(Marvel Comics Presents I#40/4) - Government agents arrived and helped the townspeople convince Over-Mind to leave them to their fate.

(Quasar I#16 (fb)) - When the Squadron Supreme appeared on Earth-616, the Over-Mind sensed them.  Somehow, his true personality took over his form again.  The minds of the Chorus were absorbed by the millions of Eternian minds in Over-Mind's brain.

Comments: Created by J. M. DeMatteis, Mike Zeck, and Quickdraw Studios.

    Chorus could be considered BTS for all of Over-Mind's appearances after Quasar 16, since they were absorbed into his consciousness.

    In OHotMU AZ (2006) #8 the composite version of the Psychics was named Chorus.

Profile by Chadman


No known connection to


Defenders I#117, p21, pan5
Captain America I#264, p1, pan4
Defenders I#114, p10, pan2
Defenders I#117, cover

Captain America I#264 (December, 1981) - J.M. DeMatteis (writer), Mike Zeck (pencils), Quickdraw Studios (inks), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Defenders I#102 (December, 1981) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Joe Sinnott (penciler), Sam Trapani & Jack Abel (inkers), Al Milgrom (editor)
Thunderbolts I#33 (December, 1999) - Kurt Busiek (writer), Mark Bagley (pencils), Scott Hanna (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Captain America I#268 (April, 1982) - J.M. DeMatteis (writer), Mike Zeck (pencils), John Beatty (inks), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Defenders I#106 (April, 1982) - J.M. DeMatteis (writer), Don Perlin (pencils), Sal Trapani, Al Milgrom, Jack Abel & Rick Magyar (inks), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#112 (December, 1982) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Don Perlin, (penciler), Mike Gustovich (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#113-114 (January, February, 1983) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Don Perlin (writer/penciler), Mike Gustovich (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#115 (March, 1983) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Hilary Barta (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#116 (April, 1983) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), 'Diverse Hands' (inkers), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#117 (May, 1983) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Jack Abel (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#120 (June, 1983) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Jack Abel, Kim DeMulder, Andy Mushynsky (inkers), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#121 (July, 1983) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Don Perlin (writer/penciler), Jack Abel, Andy Mushynsky, Alan Kupperberg (inkers), Al Milgrom (editor)
Defenders I#122 (August, 1983) - JM DeMatteis (writer), Don Perlin (penciler), Kim DeMulder (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Marvel Comics Presents I#40/4 (Mid-December, 1989) - Scott Lobdell (writer), Don Heck (pencils), Jeff Albrecht (inks), Terry Kavanagh (editor)
Quasar I#16 (November, 1990) - Mark Gruenwald (writer), Mike Manley (pencils), Dan Panosian & Keith Williams (inks), Len Kaminski (editor)

First Posted: 11/24/2005
Last updated: 11/27/2006

Any Additions/Corrections? please let me know.

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