Real Name: Gaea

Identity/Class: Elder God (Distant Past, Pre-Cataclysmic, through to present day)

Occupation: Mother-Earth

Group Membership: Elder Gods

Affiliations: Brother Nature, Brother Voodoo(s), Clea, Cognoscenti, Dark Mairi, Defenders, Demogorge, Dr. Strange, Humus Sapien, Morgan Le Fay, Neurii, Odin, Sisterhood of Danu, Thor, Topaz, Uatu the Watcher, Young Gods;
    Gaea continues to be worshipped in a number of religions on Earth;
    see Ian McNee's Catalogue of Correspondences via the First Tarot;

Enemies: Chthon, Dormammu, Ravagers of Creation, Set, Umar, Yandroth

Known Relatives: Demiurge (father);
     Chthon, Set, Hyppus (brothers), Issus, Oshtur (sisters), other Elder Gods (siblings) and their offspring (varying relations);
    Amihan, Anansi (son by Buluku), Atum/Demogorge (son by the Demiurge), Bathala, Brahma, Dagda (
Eochaid Ollathair; son by Iarbonel), Erlik (son by Tengri), Frey (son by Njord), Huitzilopochti (son), Kanaloa  (son by Rangi), Kagutsuchi (son by Izanagi), Kane Milohai (son by Rangi), Koyash (son by Tengri), Ku (son by Rangi), Kuara (son by Tengri), Leir (son by Iarbonel), Lono (son by Rangi), Lusa (son by Buluku), Negafok (son by Hodiak), Nanuq (son by Hodiak), Nuada (son by Iarbonel), Ogma (son by Iarbonel), Omm, Ouranos, Praamzius (son by Rod), Shiva, Thaumas (son by Pontus), Thor (son by Odin), Thoth (son by Demiurge), Turoq (son by Hodiak), Typhon (son by Tartarus), Ulgen (son by Tengri), Valka, Vishnu, Yuanshi Tianzun (son by Demiurge/Yang); Baiame is likely her son
    Alecto (daughter by Oruanos), Aman Sinaya, Ay (daughter by Tengri), Ceto (daughter by Pontus), Charybdis (daughter by Poseidon), Freya (daughter by Njord), Inanna (daughter by Anu), Mahu (daughter by Buluku), Megaera (daughter by Ouranos), Nelvana (daughter by Hodiak), Sedna (daughter by Hodiak), Tisiphone (daughter by Ouranos), Phorcys (son-in-law), Echidna (granddaughter/daughter-in-law)
    possibly Haumea, Ninmu (daughter by Ea), Valka (possible children)
    Akua (Oceanic gods), Amatsu-Kami (Japanese/Shinto gods), Annunaki (Mesopotamian gods), Daevas (Hindu gods), Dievas (Slavic gods), Diwatas
 (Filipino gods), Fomor, Heliopolitans (Ennead; Egyptian gods), Jumala (Finnish gods), Olympians (Graeco-Roman gods), Shin (Korean gods), Tenger, Tuatha de Danaan (Celtic gods), Vodu (African gods); Cyclopes (Arges, Brontes, Steropes), Giants/Gigantes of Olympus, Centimanes/Hecatcheiroi (Briares, Gyges, Kottus), the first-generation Titans (by Ouranos) (progeny & descendants); possibly the Teteoh
    Spider Clan, Spider-People (descendants)

More Relatives: 

 Ahti, Amihan, Ba'al-Hadad, Balor, Bathala, Calumet, Centimanes/Hecatcheiroi (Briares, Gyges, Kottus), Coeus, Crius, Cronus, Cyclopes (Arges, Brontes, Steropes), Dagda (Eochaid Ollathair), Dagon (Enlil), Dulb, Ea (Enki), Elathan, Erlik, Frey, Haokah, Hotamintanio, Huitzilopochti, Hyperion, Iapetus, Indech, Indra, Kanaloa, Kagutsuchi, Kane Milohai, Koyash, Ku, Kuara, Leir, Lono, Lusa, Martu, Negafok, Nanuq, Nin-agal, Nuada, Oceanus, Ogma, Omm, Ouranos, Praamzius, Shiva, Susanoo, Tammuz, Tapio, Tawa, Tethra, Thaumas, Thor, Thoth, Tomazooma, Tsuki-Yomi, Turoq, Typhon, Ulgen, Vishnu, Yuanshi Tianzun (sons)


Alecto, Aman Sinaya, Ameratsu, Ay, Badb, Cethlann, Charybdis, Ereshkigal, Freya, Haumea, Hina, Inanna (Ishtar), Macha, Mahu, Megaera, Mnemosyne, Nelvana, Nemain, Ninsar, Phoebe, Rhea, Sedna, Sweigsdunka, Tethys, Theia, Themis, Tisiphone (daughters)


Aliases: A'akuluujjusi (Inua/Inuit), Aditi (Hindi Name), Ajyst, Akka (Finnish), Akna, Ala (Yoruba), Ale (Vodu), Ammavaru (Vedic), Armaiti (Zoroastian/Yazatas), Asase Ya, Cihuacoatl (Aztec/Teteoh), Citlalicue (Olmec), Coatlique (Aztec name), Danu (Celtic name), Dilga (Aboriginal), Domnu, Eithinoha (Iroquois), Eje, Erce (Russian), Gaia (alternate spelling), Great Mother, Hou Tou Guo (Chinese), Huang, Ilmatar (Finnish), Ixchebel Yax, Izanami/Izanami-No-Mikoto/In (Japanese), Jord (Norse), Ki (Mesopotamian), Mother Earth, Mother Nature, Nana (Dahomey), Nana Buluku, Neith (Egyptian name), Nertha (German), Ninhursag (Sumerian name), Nokomis (Algonquin), Nungeena (Aboriginal), Ot, Otuken, Pachamama (Incan), Papa/Papahanau-Moku (Oceanic/Hawaiian), Papaptauanuku (Oceanic/Maori), Prakriti (Brahmanic), Spenta Armaiti, Terra, Umay, Vaat (Siberian/Mongolian), the World, Yer, Yin (Chinese/Xian); possibly Audumbla, Ometecuhtli, Ometeotl, Tonacacihuatl
    Gaea has also been equated with Rangi (who is actually the masculine deity of the Kahuna/Oceanic Gods) - indicating that Gaea either posed as her own mate, that Rangi spawned directly from Gaea as an aspect of her, or that there has just been confusion since Papa is seemingly a masculine name (Papa was also impersonated by Whiro); similarly, she has been equated with Yo (an alias/aspect of her Amatsu-Kami mate Izanagi) - indicating either that Izanagi spawned from Gaea directly as an aspect of her or, more likely, that there was confusion as to whether In and Yo corresponded to Izanami and Izanagi, respectively, or vice-versa.
    numerous other names within the various pantheons of Earth;
    "Bright Lady" was previously thought to refer to her, but it was eventually revealed to refer to Oshtur instead

Base of Operations: Mobile on Earth

First Appearance: Doctor Strange II#6 (February, 1975)



Powers/Abilities: Gaea possesses great mystical powers of an undefined nature. She can draw on the spiritual energies of all of Earth’s living beings since all of these beings share part of her life essence. She can command the forces of nature on Earth, such as storms and volcanic activity. Although Gaea’s powers may seem similar to many of those of the living planet, Ego, Gaea and Ego are actually two very different kinds of beings -- Ego is a planet that has acquired sentience, whereas Gaea is a goddess who has infused her life essence into the living beings of her planet. Gaea is known to have great powers to heal injured living beings and to cause living beings to grow. She has considerable telekinetic power and can even levitate Thor’s hammer, which few beings can lift through non-mechanical means. Gaea can also bestow mystical power upon sorcerers who know how to call upon her for it.

    Gaea is the embodiment of the spirit of life, growth, harvest, and renewal on Earth.

    Gaea does have a humanoid form, but she generally manifests herself in whatever humanoid form she chooses. Usually, she appears as a young woman with long black hair and blue eyes, but as Jord, she appeared as a young woman with blonde hair and blue eyes. It has been suggested that she always appears in the form of however image she was worshipped as by whatever race on earth, so if she appeared before an ethnically diverse group, she would appear in the form of an ethnic image connected to that person such as African to a person of African descent and Asian to a person of Asian descent, even simultaneously. In any of her humanoid forms, it is likely she has superhuman strength (possibly Class 100, although she rarely relies on physical strength), stamina, vitality, enchanted longevity and resistance to conventional injury and terrestrial disease.

    Gaea is associated with the Ebon Rose, one of the Cornerstones of Creation.


History: (Thor Annual#10/Silver Surfer Annual#2/5 (fb)/Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Deluxe Edition#4: Gaea) -
    Gaea was one of the Elder Gods who first materialized on Earth shortly before any other life first appeared there. She and her brother Chthon were among those Elder Gods who inhabited the land masses of Earth (as opposed to the sea or skies), and may have had something to do with forming certain geological patterns. With the exception of Gaea, the Elder Gods degenerated into demons, becoming parasitic entities, needing to feed on the life essences of other beings to survive. Since humankind had not yet been born, the Elder Gods began preying on each other.

(Avengers I#187 (fb)) - Gaea observed her brother Chthon inscribe the pages of the Darkhold in an unknown manner long before written history existed.

(Thor Annual#10/Silver Surfer Annual#2/5 (fb)/Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Deluxe Edition#4: Gaea) -
    Fearing that the demons' battles would destroy the newly evolving life on Earth, Gaea called upon the Demiurge, the sentient life force of Earth's biosphere, and gave birth to the first of the next generation of gods. Atum slaughtered virtually all of the rest of the Elder Gods, though some, like Chthon and Set, escaped extradimensionally.

    Gaea was the only Elder God permitted by this second generation of gods to exist. She infused her godly life essence into all living beings on Earth.

(Iron Man Annual#10/4 (fb)) - Gaea became aware that the dinosaurs that had evolved on Earth had reached an evolutionary dead end. She also realized that their existence prevented mammals from evolving to their full potential and she shifted her attention to them. The Elder God, Set, however, had become linked with all the dinosaurs on Earth and ordered them to destroy the mammals of Earth. Gaea realized what was occurring and called upon her son Atum, who appeared and did battle with Set, cutting off his head in the process. Set re-grew each head as it was severed until he had seven, but in the course of the battle, nearly all the dinosaurs of Earth were destroyed except for an isolated few in areas such as the Savage Land. With Set weakened, Atum in the form of Demogorge proved victorious in breaking Set’s control on Earth.

(Uncanny X-Men Annual#13/3) - <1,000,000 BC> As the First Host of Celestials approached Earth, Gaea met their ship and gave off star-like light to beckon a wandering tribe to come forward to accept the gifts the Space Gods were bringing them. The Celestials dispelled some of Set's Serpent Men descendants and began their experiments on true humans, creating the Eternals and Deviants, as well as generating the potential for superhuman mutation within mainstream humanity.

(Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Deluxe Edition#9: Olympians - BTS) - Gaea gave birth to the sky god Ouranos, with whom she mated to father the first generation of the Olympian race, the Titans.

(Greek-Roman Myth) - Gaea mated with Ouranus, the sky-god, and gave birth to the Titans, the Cyclops and the Hecatocheiroi (also called the Centimanes). Ouranus, however, was displeased with the Cyclops and the Hecatocheiroi and imprisoned them in Tartarus.

(Encyclopaedia Mythologica: Annunaki entry) - In her role as Ninhursag, Gaea mated with Annunaki sky father Anu to sire a new generation of Annunaki, including Inanna.

(Encyclopaedia Mythologica: Apu entry) - In her aspect as Pachamamma, Gaea aided Apu sky father Viracocha in bringing to life a race of giants sculpted in Viracocha's image. The giants lived in total darkness and inhabited the city Tiahunaco (modern day Tiwanaku, Bolivia); however, the giants soon defied their creators, prompting Viracocha to transform them back into stone. With Gaea preoccupied elsewhere, Viracocha next created the sea goddess Mama Cocha as his companion.

(Encyclopaedia Mythologica: Aboriginal gods entry) - When the Aboriginal god of evil Marmoo sent his insect swarms to ravage the landscape, Gaea (as Dilga, Nungeena, and other names) wove flowers together and transformed them into a flock of lyrebirds that attacked and defeated the insect horde.

(Encyclopaedia Mythologica: Akua entry) - Gaea (as Papa) coupled with primordial Sky Father Rangi to give birth to the first Akua (Oceanic gods):Light god Kane Milohai, sea god Kanaloa, war god Ku, and peace & agriculture god, Lono. Due to the constant tight embrace of Papa and Rangi, their offspring lived in eternal darkness. The fierce Ku proposed that he and his brothers kill their parents to end the darkness; but Kane disagreed and instead used his might to physically push his parents apart, thus separating the sky from the earth  and bringing light to the world.

(Encyclopaedia Mythologica: Amatsu-Kami entry) - Some time after Demogorge purged the demonic Elder Gods from Earth, As Izanami-No-Mikoto (aka In), Gaea met Izanagi-No-Mikoto when he descended to Earth from Ama. The two traveled into the formless void of eternal nothingness dominated by Amatsu-Mikaboshi; standing on the Bridge of Heaven, they dipped Izanagi's Jeweled Spear into the seemingly endless void, causing the generation of the Japanese isles. The two descended to the newly formed landmasses and began to populate them with living creatures as well as lesser Amatsu-Kami who later came to be worshipped as gods by the inhabitants of Japan.
    Izanami later vanished after giving birth to the fire god Kagutsuchi, Izanagi believed she had been incinerated and descended into the underworld Yomi to search fruitlessly for her.

(Encyclopaedia Mythologica: Bor entry / OHotMU A to Z hardcovers Vol. 14: Asgardians entry) - The primeval enchanted cow Audumbla (believed by some to be an aspect of Gaea) rose from Niffleheim's ice seconds after the first Frost Giant, Ymir was born from the ice as it was melted by Muspelheim's heat. Ymir subsisted on Audumbla's milk, while she gained nourishment by licking Niffleheim's endless ice. Over time, Audumbla wore down the ice to reveal Buri, precursor to the Asgardian gods.

(Encyclopaedia Mythologica: Daevas entry) - The Daevas Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu (later collectively known as the Trimurti) emerged from Hiranyagarbha, the golden womb of Gaea (later known to the Daevas as Aditi).

(Encyclopaedia Mythologica: Dievas entry) - Some time after Demogorge purged the demonic Elder Gods from Earth, the primordial god of order Rod encountered Gaea in her aspect as Erce and brought her to his native realm Svarga, where she gave birth to Praamzius, god of time (and presumably many others)

(Encyclopaedia Mythologica: Heliopolitans entry) - Much later than Atum, Gaea and Demiurge spawned Thoth of the Heliopolitans.

(Encyclopaedia Mythologica: Inua entry) - As A'akuluujjusi, Gaea mated with Hodiak to spawn the principal Inua (Inuit gods).

(Encyclopaedia Mythologica: Jumala entry) - Known as Akka or Ilmatar, Gaea mated with Ukko to spawn the Jumala (Finnish gods). Akras & Tuoni are subsequently listed and likely children of Gaea and Ukkko, but this is unconfirmed.

(OHotMU Deluxe Edition#8: Olympians entry) - Gaea gave birth to Ouranos.

(OHotMU A to Z HC#9: Olympians appendix: Alecto, Megaera, & Tisiphone enties/Encyclopaedia Mythologica: Uranus entry) - As Ouranos was slain by Cronus, his blood fell upon Mother Earth, and she gave birth to Alecto, Megaera, & Tisiphone, known collectively as the Furies ("Erinyes" in Greek), feminine deities of vengeance and punishment.

(OHotMU A to Z HC#9: Olympians appendix: Olympian gigantes entry) - Ouranos' blood also impregnated Gaea with the Giants/Gigantes.

(Incredible Hercules#???/OHotMUA to Z HC#9: Olympians appendix: Tartarus entry) - Gaea mated with Tartarus to give birth to Typhon in response to the Olympian gods slaughtering the Giants/Gigantes.

(Encyclopaedia Mythologica: Zeus entry/OHotMU A to Z HC#14: Zeus) - Gaea hid Zeus from Cronus in the Caves of Dicte on Crete's Aegian Hill where he suckled by the goat Almatheia and was tended by minor goddesses. Per Gaea's prophecy on how to defeat the Titans, the adult Zeus freed the Cyclopes and Centimanes from Tartarus, and they aided in defeating the Titans.

(Encyclopaedia Mythologica: Tenger entry) - The Sky Father Tengri (known as "Tanri" to the Altaic Turks, as "Tengeri" to the Mongols, and as "Tangara" to the Yakuts) embodied the Eternal Blue Sky that predated all things. He found a kindred spirit in the primordial Earth Mother Gaea, and the two sired a son, Erlik. Gaea provided Erlik physical form by shaping his body out of mud, and Tengri imbued the body with life essence ("kut"). However, Erlik soon developed feelings of pride, hubris, and arrogance, forcing Tengri to banish him to the depths of thenetherworld, where he became the god of evil & death. Other divine offspring soon followed, including the moon goddess Ay, the sun god Koyash, the thunder god Kuara, and the light god Ulgen. Pleased with the results of these subsequent attempts at creation, Tengri and Gaea then set out to create humanity and charged Ulgen with protecting the fledging mortal population.

(OHotMU A to Z HC#11: Tenger entry) - Gaea is known as Umay or Yer to the Altaic Turks, as Eje or Otuken to the Mongols, and as Ajyst to the Yakuts.

(OHotMU A to Z HC#12: Teteoh entry) - Gaea was possibly the mother of primeval god and goddess Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl (aka "Tonacatecuhtli" and "Tonacacihuatl," and collectively as the androgynous "Ometeotl"), the Teteoh progenitors and the parents of Tezcatlipoca; alternatively, Omecihuatl may have been an alias or an aspect of Gaea.
    In her later aspects known as Coatlique or Cihuacoatl, Gaea helped Quetzalcoatl in allegedly creating a new race of mortals from the bones of previous races existing on Earth. Gaea later gave birth to the sun god Huitzilopochti.

(OHotMU A to Z HC#12: Tuatha de Danaan entry) - In her Danu aspect, Gaea mated with the high chieftain Iarbonel and produced the first generation of Tuatha de Danaan (Celtic gods; the "Children of Danu")

(OHotMU A to Z HC#12: Tuatha de Danaan entry) - Gaea was worshipped by Picts as far back as Hyborian and Valusian times.

(OHotMU A to Z HC#14: Bran entry) - With Iarbonel, Danu/Gaea produced Leir.

(OHotMU A to Z HC#14: Caber entry) - With Iarbonel, Danu/Gaea produced Ogma.

(OHotMU A to Z HC#14: Dagda entry) - With Iarbonel, Danu/Gaea produced Eochaid Ollathair, later known as the Dagda.

(OHotMU A to Z HC#14: Gwynn entry) - With Iarbonel, Danu/Gaea produced Nuada.

(OHotMU A to Z HC#14: Fomor entry) - Fomorian warrior king Conand coupled with the primordial Earth Mother Gaea (known as "Domnu" to the Fomorians) and produced subsequent generations of Fomorians.

(OHotMU A to Z HC#13: Vodu entry) - Buluku, the supreme all-father of the Vodū, merged with the primordial Earth Mother Gaea (later known among the Vodū alternatively as "Nana," "Ale," and "Asase Ya" (among the Ashanti)), and sired twin offspring: The sun god Lusa and the moon goddess Mahu.

(OHotMU A to Z HC#13: Xian entry) - Yuanshi Tianzun, the Primeval Lord of Heaven, emerged from "wuji," the primordial nothingness, as a result of the merging of the pure breaths of the Earth Mother Gaea (known as "Yin" to the Xian) and the Demiurge (known as "Yang" to the Xian).

(OHotMU A to Z HC#13: Yazatas entry) -  Gaea recognized Ahura Mazda as a kindred spirit and also offered her services in opposing Ahriman; to the Yazatas, she became known as Armaiti.

(OHotMU A to Z Update#1 (2010)) - While many of the godly pantheons associated with Earth (notably Asgard) prepared for war against the Celestials, the Elder Earth goddess Gaea planned with goddesses of most pantheons to seek a peaceful solution to the quandary. Amongst those goddesses aiding Gaea in her quest were Aman Sinaya (Diwatas/Filippino), Amaterasu (Amatsu-Kami/Japanese/Shinto), Ameretat (Yazatas/Zoroastrian), Ay (Tenger/Mongolian), Chalchiuhtlique (Tetēoh/Aztec), Hathor (Ennead/Heliopolitan/Egyptian), Haumea (Akua/Oceanic), Hera (Olympians/Graeco-Roman), Ixchel (Ahau/Maya), Julunggul (Aboriginal), Lada (Dievas/Russian/Slavic), Lahamu (Annunaki.Mesopotamian), Mahu (Vodū/African), Mama Cocha (Apu/Inca), Mielikki (Jumala/Finnish), Morrigan (Tuatha de Danaan/Celtic), Nelvanna (Inua/Northern), Wiininwaa (Manidoog/Native American), Xi Wangmu (Xian/Taoist/Chinese), Ungnyeo (Shin/Korean), Frigga and Sigyn (Asgardian/Norse), and Saraswati, Parvati and Lakshmi(Daevas/Hindu/Vedic). Over the next millennia, the goddesses searched Earth for humans representing mankind's highest ideals, who could be presented to the Celestials as an offering. As each candidate was found, they were placed into suspended animation until the Fourth Host's arrival, with the goddesses ensuring that each candidate's superhuman potential, the legacy of the First Host's experiments, was awakened.

(Encyclopaedia Mythologica: Akua entry - BTS / Citizen V: The Everlasting) - Whiro, Akua (Oceanic) god of evil and a shapeshifter, impersonated Papa while allied with Annunaki (Mesopotamian gods) Marduks and Aqhat in a plot to use the Genesis Well to gain vast power from the souls of others.

(Kull II#2 - BTS) - <20, 500 BC> A startled man swore "By the great mother Danu's bones!".

(Conan the Savage#5-6 - BTS) - <10,000 BC> Conan encountered the Sisterhood of Danu.

(King Conan#2, BTS) - <10,000 BC> The Druid Diviatix invoked Danu for power.

(Greek-Roman Myth) - Tired of the exile of her other children in Tartarus, Gaea petitioned one of the Titans to oppose Ouranus and free their siblings from the underworld. Cronus, the youngest of the Titans, stepped forth and took a scythe and slew Ouranus, overthrowing him as Ruler of Olympus. Cronus failed to live up to his promise to free his imprisoned brethren, and Gaea warned him that he would have a child that would overthrow him. Cronus, meanwhile, cast all his children into Tartarus as they were born (later myths claimed he swallowed them). Gaea helped to conceal the birth of his son Zeus from him and had Zeus protected and sheltered by other goddesses to conceal him from Cronus. As an adult, Zeus stormed Tartarus and freed his siblings, the Cyclops and the Hecatocheiroi. They helped him to overthrow Cronus and the Titans from Olympus, and Zeus imprisoned the Titans in the underworld.

Several generations later, Gaea realized she was not happy with the Titans being imprisoned in Tartarus and conceived Typhon to oust Zeus from Olympus. After Zeus defeated Typhon, Gaea conceived the Giants to overthrow Zeus, but he and the gods, with the help of Hercules, slew the Giants to stop them from invading Olympus.

(Native American Myth) - In her role as Nokomis, Gaea received the young god Manabozho after he was cast out from heaven through the mischief of his brother Nanabozho, the trickster-god. She raised and protected him on Earth, and as an adult he returned to heaven as Manitou to replace his father as ruler of the Anasazi Gods.

(Celtic Myth/Thor I#386 (fb, BTS)) - Worshipped as the mother-goddess Danu by the ancient Celts, Gaea conceived and gave birth to the Tuatha da Danaan (Children of Danu) to serve as eternal enemies of the Fomorians -- foremost among them was Leir, god of lightning.




(Thor I#301 (fb), Thor Annual#11) - Odin approached Gaea in her form of Jord, the Norse Mother-Earth, and suggested they conceive a child who would be a worthy heir to Odin. Their son was Thor, who would be raised thinking Frigga, Odin’s wife, was his mother.

(Thor I#300 (fb)) - A thousand years ago, Gaea visited Odin as he attempted to sacrifice himself upon Yggdrasil to atone for all he had put Thor through to avoid Ragnarok, but Gaea informed him of the coming of the Celestials, and Odin got down from Yggdrasil to intervene.

(Thor I#301 (fb)) - To save the Earth from the Celestials, Gaea allied herself with the goddesses of the Earthly pantheons, and had them gather together the best examples of humanity over the next thousand years.

(Doctor Strange III#20/2, BTS) - <17th Century> Laurent, companion of Captain Tyger, confronted the sorcerer Schango and, using a spell given to him by Legba, summoned Alexandre's spirit to merge with him to defeat Schango. The Book of Vishanti states that Gaea may have given Legba the spell that he used.

(Wolverine: Bloodlust (fb) BTS?) - <1700's?> The Neuri, in their homeland, established a link with the "Earth-goddess" to access her power.

(Uncanny X-Men#262 (fb)) - As the "Bright Lady", Gaea appeared to Storm.

(Doctor Strange II#6) - Gaea called upon the sorceress Clea to protect her from “a growth in the world which was not of her desire.” She was referring to the presence of Dormammu.

(Doctor Strange II#7) - Held captive by Dormammu at the center of the Earth where he’d been imprisoned, Gaea called out to his niece Clea to free her.

(Giant-Sized Avengers#4) - Imprisoned by Dormammu, Gaea watched with joy as the Vision, Scarlet Witch and Agatha Harkness escaped the demon's clutches.

(Dr. Strange II#8-9) - Gaea again called out to Clea for help, as Dormammu attempted to destroy the Earth, but Dr. Strange transferred part of his power to Clea so that she could set Gaea free, and Gaea harnessed the power of every living being on Earth to banish Dormammu back to the Dark Dimension.

(Classic X-Men#20/2 - BTS) - When a weakened adult Storm was attacked by Richard Twelvetrees and his chemically mutated slaves, Gaea sent down lightning to save Storm.

(Thor I#300 - BTS) - As Odin led the Asgardians to war against the Celestials, Gaea contacted the other pantheons and told them to keep out of the battle.

(Thor I#300-301) - Just before Arishem the Celestial committed a deathblow to Thor, Gaea appeared to save him and presented the Young Gods to the Fourth Celestial Host, which resulted in their judging in favor of Earth. Curing Thor of his injuries from battle with the Celestials, she revealed herself to be his mother and the mother-goddess of all the pantheons of Earth. She sent Thor to visit the god-kings of all the pantheons for the life energies to restore the Asgardians.

(Hulk vs. Hercules: When Titans Collide#1 (fb)) - Gaea caused the Hulk to be teleported from the Crossroads dimension to Olympus so that he could wage war against the Gods of Olympus, thereby vindicating the injuries the gods inflicted upon her children the Titans.

(Captain America I#336 (fb)) - Gaea supposedly heard the mental anguish of a park ranger left for dead after trying to protect the forest from developers. She appointed him power as nature’s guardian warrior, Brother Nature.

(Doctor Strange III#2) - Trapped in the body of a female rat by Dormammu, Dr. Strange called upon Gaea for help, but she was too weakened by the events of Inferno to help and sent the mystic Topaz to help him.

(Marvel Graphic Novel: Spider-Man: Spirits of the Earth - BTS) - Gaea's power was invoked by Dark Mairi, one of her Celtic followers.

(Thor Annual#14) - Gaea revealed to Thor that she could not help him to defeat the Elder God Set and that he would have to appeal to her son Atum instead.

(Avengers I#284 - BTS ) - Trying to cure Hercules, Prometheus invoked Gaea for power.  

(Fantastic Four Annual#22/4) - As Uatu the Watcher closed his history on Set, he was approached by Gaea, who opined that Set would always meet defeat at the hands of mankind because of humanity's capacity for courage, idealism, and love.

(Quasar#24-25) - When Maelstrom's black hole threatened the existence of Earth, Gaea alerted Dr. Strange to the danger, and he brought together other mystics to help save the Earth. Ultimately, the black hole was eliminated by Quasar.

(Encyclopaedia Mythologica: Akua entry - BTS / Citizen V: The Everlasting) - Whiro, Akua (Oceanic) god of evil and a shapeshifter, impersonated Papa while allied with Annunaki (Mesopotamian gods) Marduks and Aqhat in a plot to use the Genesis Well to gain vast power from the souls of others.

(Defenders II#1) - Gaea was captured by Yandroth, who used her power in order to summon the Ravagers of Creation to assault Earth. However, the Defenders banded together and apparently slew him. Yandroth used Gaea's power to curse the Defenders so that they would be forced to band together to save the Earth.

(Defenders II#2-5 - BTS) - Yandroth's curse, empowered by Gaea, forced the Defenders to save Earth from menaces such as Pluto.

(Thunderbolts I#55 - BTS) - The mutant Humus Sapien, possessing the power to control life-force, felt the anguish of Gaea from all the harm humanity had done to the Earth, and nearly took the lives of everyone on Earth in return. He finally allowed himself to be imprisoned in another dimension.

(Defenders II#6-12 - BTS) - Yandroth's curse continued to affect the Defenders, pitting them against the Headmen, the demonic Wayfinder, and Orrgo.

(Defenders II#12/2) - After realizing that it was Gaea's power which held them together, the Defenders confronted Gaea, and asked her to remove the curse. She refused to do so, and they assaulted her, but were unable to harm her. Gaea teleported them away rather than allow the violence to continue.

(The Order#1-4 - BTS) - Yandroth's curse continued to force the Defenders to work together, but they were now corrupted by Yandroth into using their powers to impose order upon the Earth.

(Order#4 - BTS) - Clea invoked the name of Apalla to drain power from the Silver Surfer to create a feminine counterpart to oppose him: Ardina.

"Umar and Hecate, Demeter, Jord, Blazing Apalla guide my reach forward...
on the edge of a knifeblade, at the crest of the storm...
by moontide and lifesblood...
come forth...and take form!

(The Order#5-6) - When Yandroth's spirit was driven back into a physical body, Gaea finally granted the Defenders' request, and lifted her curse from them. Afterward, she secretly contacted Nighthawk to inform him that if the Defenders were ever needed again, he would have the power to summon them together.

(Witches#1) - Gaea was one of the mystical beings of Earth who sensed the Hellphyr being unleashed from the Tome of Zhered-Na.

Comments: Adapted by Steve Englehart and Gene Colan.

    In Greek/Roman Myth, Gaea was considered the daughter of Aether and Hemera, two gods considered children of Erebus and Nyx who in turn were children of the Titan Ophion.

    In the Marvel Universe, Gaea is the ancestor of all the gods of Earth. Her mates to these perspective pantheons (Ouranus, Buluku, Purusha, Pan-Ku, Atum-Re, Gitche Manitou, et al) might all be further aspects of the Demiurge or splintered off versions of himself.

    In the Marvel Universe, Jord and Nertha are two of many aliases that Gaea used before the mortals of Earth, but these may have also been goddesses she masqueraded since Nertha is supposed to be sister of Njord, the Norse sea-god and Jord is the daughter of Dag, god of day, and mother of Frigga.

    Conceivably, Gaea could also be the saltwater-goddess, Tiamat, since she was linked with all the life forms of Earth, not just those associated with land. Considering previous glimpses have shown her in the oceans of Earth, it would not be such a stretch to make her an ocean-goddess. In fact, Tiamat’s reputation of sending her spawn to attack the Gods of Mesopotamia has much in common with Gaea sending the Giants of Myth to attack the Olympians. However, the god Marduk killed Tiamat and her corpse was then used to create the heavens and the Earth. A similar myth occurs between the Mexican Gods and the dragon Cipactli who was also slain to create the heavens and the Earth and she was also equated with being a goddess of Earth. In the Marvel Universe, at least, it might be predisposed to consider the dragons Tiamat and Cipactli as creatures that usurped roles that Gaea had discarded.
    Tiamat (or at least its corpse) was seen in:

    Gaea might have jumped the gun in deciding that dinosaurs were at an evolutionary dead end. Modern archaeologists studying the size of their larger brains and eye cavities in the fossil record believe that if they had continued to evolve that they might have developed human characteristics inclined to civilization. Indeed, Marvel has depicted many reptile alien races such as the Skrulls and the Snarks as well as other-dimensional worlds where races evolved from dinosaurs. The TV series Star Trek Voyager also explored this idea in an episode from the series.
    On that same note, from Per Degaton:
Atum's appearance in Iron Man Annual#10, which ties in with the extinction of the dinosaurs, reveals that Gaea decided to allow the dinosaurs to become extinct because she did not think they could evolve into a sentient lifeform. Well, if one considers the number of alternate Earths or timelines where dinosaurs were HERE>>>>the ancestors of human level intelligent beings such as:

Gaea was wrong, since these Earths all had sentient races evolve from the dinosaurs (so Set was right! one wonders if he rules any of these worlds...)

The deaths of the dinosaurs has been ascribed to:

These events are not mutually exclusive (and the Earth X and Ultraverse ones are moot). While the presence of Asgardians around 65 million BC doesn't make sense, the meteor fragments could have been magically sent back in time. Also, time may not function the same way in a magical realm like Asgard. Anyway, That Which Endures' decision and the struggle between Gaea and Set could have occurred concurrently. The magical energies of the the Mjonlir forge, combined with (and possibly drawn through time to/by) the struggle between Gaea and Set, brought forth either one immense comet or a fierce meteor shower that pelted Earth. Without Set or That Which Endures to back them, the dinosaurs rapidly died off.

     Atum’s role in defeating Set superficially resembles Hercules’ defeat of the Hydra. It leaves open the possibility at least in the Marvel Universe of Set trying to live again through the body of the Hydra only to be defeated by Hercules.

    It is unknown if the Leir in the Marvel Universe is the Llyr of Celtic myth. Both figures are gods of storm who claim to be children of Gaea in her role as Danu, but nothing has been established to suggest they are one and the same.

Is the "Goddess" that Storm worships supposed to be Gaea? Storm's "Bright Lady" was seen in a flashback to her youth in X-Men I#226.
    It has since been confirmed that the Bright Lady is Oshtur, though Storm also reveres the Earth goddess Gaea.

The original Official Handbook entry for Morgan Le Fay states that she receives her power from Gaea.
As Danu, she has been invoked in Kull II#2, King Conan#3, and a couple of issues of Conan the Savage.
Also, in Wolverine:Bloodlust, the Neuri mentioned that they invoked the power of the Earth-goddess.
--Per Degaton

Classic X-Men#20 explicitly identifies the Goddess worshipped by Storm as Mother Nature or Mother Earth, i.e., Gaea.
--Per Degaton
    Not really. It says is that "Mother Nature, Mother Earth, the mother of us all, is the only other parent she has acknowledged since childhood."
Storm is also described as a loving daughter of Mother Nature.
    Later, as Storm's attacked, she is unwilling to kill her attackers, which seems the only way to stop them. She says "Great Goddess help me!!" and the narrative says "And, from the heavens, an answer comes. Mother Nature lifts her hand in defense of a favored daughter." and lightning strikes her attackers.
    To me, all this means is that Storm also worships Gaea, which makes sense given her connection to the Earth.Catalogue of Correspondences

    In the Marvel Tarot, sorcerer Ian McNee does a reading from the First Tarot, and he puts together a wealth of information on his findings and thoughts. Among these are the "Marvelous Catalogue of Correspondences, which links various beings, objects, and things as being connected and/or related to one of four categories. See the entries on Chthon and Set for additional detail/discussion/categories.

    The Marvel Tarot notes Gaea's connection or similarities to, or association with, a number of earth (soil/stone/mineral) based beings and objects, like Black Knight, the Rose of Peace, the Thing, Sandman, Ironclad, Terrax, Jack Power, Goat Child, Magnum, Iron Lad, Brother Bear, Mambo Legba, Dyzakk, Raggadorr & Stonecutter, Cyttorak and the Juggernaut, the Tree of Life, Ego, Eternity, Adam Warlock's current incarnation, the Hulk, Atlez, the Spider Clan, the Jungian state sensitive, Genbu - the Black Tortoise, humanity, the Kree, the Darkforce, the force of gravity, containment of energy, the solid phase of matter, the Zodiac signs (Capricorn, Virgo, and Taurus), the gemstone onyx, the card suit diamonds, the tarot suits stones and coins, the colors green & brown, the Western lands, the season autumn, noon time, the symbols egg, apple, tree, wheat, & cornucopia; and the following animals: ox, cow, hen, burrowing creatures (esp. the badger and hedgehog), rabbit, tortoise, fauns, and dryads.

Thanks to Per Degaton for adding the info for Classic X-Men#20 and Uncanny X-Men#262.

by Will U, Prime Eternal, Snood, and Per Degaton

Gaea should not be confused with:

The Gaea Shard was a crystal containing a sliver of the essence of Gaea herself. It was used by Dr. Strange to fight off the Undying Ones.

--Dr. Strange III#41

Images taken from:
Body – OHOTMU#4, pg. 60, Gaea entry
Powers- Thor Annual 14, pg. 17, mid panel
Origin- Silver Surfer Annual 2, pg. 60, bottom panel
Face- Silver Surfer Annual 2, pg. 62, bottom panel
Thor Annual#11, page 5, panel 1
Thor I#301, page 4, panel 6

Dr. Strange II#6 (February, 1975) - Steve Englehart (writer), Gene Colan (pencils), Klaus Janson (inks), Len Wein (editor)
Dr. Strange II#7 (April, 1975) - Steve Englehart (writer), Gene Colan (pencils), John Romita (inks), Len Wein (editor)
Dr. Strange II#8 (June, 1975) - Steve Englehart (writer), Gene Colan (pencils), Tom Palmer (inks), Len Wein (editor)
Giant-Size Avengers#4 (June, 1975) - Steve Englehart (writer), Don Heck (pencils), John Tartaglione (inks), Len Wein (editor)
Avengers I#187 (September, 1979) - Mark Gruenwald, Steven Grant & David Michelinie (writers), John Byrne (pencils), Dan Green (inks), Roger Stern (editor)
Thor I#300-301 (October-November 1980) - Mark Gruenwald & Ralph Macchio (writers), Keith Pollard (pencils), Gene Day (#300) & Chic Stone (#301) (inks), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Thor Annual#10 (1982) - Mark Gruenwald & Alan Zelenetz (writers), Bob Hall (pencils), Rick Bryant, Joe Rubinstein, Andy Mushynsky, Al Gordon & Kevin Dzuban (inks), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Thor Annual#11 (1983) - Alan Zelenetz (writer), Bob Hall (pencils), Vince Colletta (inks), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Dr. Strange III#2 (January, 1989) - Peter Gillis (writer), Richard Case (pencils), Randy Emberlin (inks), Tom DeFalco (editor)
Marvel Graphic Novel: Spider-Man: Spirits of the Earth (1987) - Charles Vess (writer/artist)
Captain America I#337 (December, 1987) - Mark Gruenwald (writer), Tom Morgan (pencils), Dave Hunt (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Classic X-Men#20 (April, 1988) - Jo Duffy (writer), John Bolton (artist), Ann Nocenti (editor)
Thor Annual#14 (1989) - Roy Thomas (writer), Al Milgrom (pencils), Don Heck (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Iron Man Annual#10 (1989) - Peter Sanderson (writer), Mark Bagley (pencils), Keith Williams (inks), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Silver Surfer Annual#2 (1989) - Peter Sanderson (writer), Mark Bagley (pencils), Keith Williams (inks), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Fantastic Four Annual#22 (1989) - Peter Sanderson (writer), Mark Bagley (pencils), Keith Williams (inks), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Uncanny X-Men Annual#13 (1989) - Peter Sanderson (writer), Mark Bagley (pencils), Keith Williams (inks), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Uncanny X-Men#262 (June, 1990) - Chris Claremont (writer), Kieron Dwyer (pencils), Joe Rubinstein (inks), Bob Harras (editor)
Quasar#24-25 (August-September 1991) - Mark Gruenwald (writer), Greg Capullo (pencils), Keith Williams (inks), Len Kaminski (editor)
Defenders II#1-3 (March-May, 2001) - Kurt Busiek & Erik Larsen (writers), Erik Larsen (pencils), Klaus Janson & Dick Giordano (#2) (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders II#4 (June, 2001) - Kurt Busiek & Erik Larsen (writers), Ron Frenz (pencils), Scott Hanna (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders II#5 (July, 2001) - Kurt Busiek & Erik Larsen (writers), Erik Larsen (pencils), Sal Buscema (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Thunderbolts I#55 (November 2001) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Patrick Zircher (pencils), Al Vey (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders II#6-7 (August-September, 2001) - Kurt Busiek & Erik Larsen (writers), Erik Larsen (pencils), Al Gordon (#6) & Sal Buscema (#7) (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders II#8-10 (October, 2001) - Kurt Busiek, Erik Larsen & Eric Stephenson (writers), Ron Frenz (pencils), Al Vey (#8), Scott Hanna (#9), Sal Buscema (#10) (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders II#11-12 (January-February, 2002) - Kurt Busiek (#11) & Erik Larsen (writer), Erik Larsen (pencils), Sal Buscema (#11) & Erik Larsen (#12) (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Order#1 (April, 2002) - Jo Duffy, Kurt Busiek (writers), Matt Haley (penciler), Dan Panosian (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Order#2 (May, 2002) - Jo Duffy, Kurt Busiek (writers), Chris Batista (penciler), Dan Panosian (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Order#3 (June, 2002) - Jo Duffy, Kurt Busiek (writers), Matt Haley, Luke Ross (pencilers), Dan Panosian (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Order#4 (July, 2002) - Jo Duffy, Kurt Busiek (writers), Dan Jurgens (penciler), Bob Layton (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Order#5 (August, 2002) - Jo Duffy, Kurt Busiek (writers), Ivan Reis (penciler), Jose Pimentel (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Order#6 (September, 2002) - Jo Duffy, Kurt Busiek (writers), Matt Haley (penciler), Dan Panosian (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)

Hulk vs. Hercules: When Titans Collide#1 (June, 2008) - Greg Pak, Fred Van Lente (writers), Khoi Pham, Paul Neary, Dennis Calero, Eric Nguyen, Reilly Brown, Carlos Cuevas, Terry Pallot, Chris Sotomayor, Bob Layton (artists), Mark Paniccia (editor)
Thor & Hercules: Encyclopaedia Mythologica (2009) - Anthony Flamini (head writer, coordinator), Greg Pak, Fred Van Lente, Paul Cornell (consulting writers), Kevin Sharpe (The Apu entry art), Jeff Youngquist (editor)

First Posted: 08/11/2004
Last updated: 08/26/2022

Any Additions/Corrections? please let me know.

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