Real Name: Arthur Parks
formerly human technology user
former research engineer
Group Membership: Army of Evil (
Absorbing Man, Armadillo,
Circus of Crime (Bruto the Strongman, Clown, Fire-Eater, Great
Gambonnos, Ringmaster, Teena the Fat Lady),
Kraven the Hunter,
Nitro, Serpent Solutions (Anaconda,
Adder/Theodore Scott, Fer-de-Lance,
Princess Python, Puff Adder,
U-Foes (Ironclad, Vapor, Vector, X-Ray), Whirlwind,
Wrecking Crew (Bulldozer, Piledriver, Thunderball, Wrecker), Yellowjacket/Darren
formerly Lethal Legion (Grim Reaper, Radioactive Man, Whirlwind), Hood's army (Answer, Blackout (Lilin), Blood Brother, Brothers Grimm, Bulldozer, Bushwacker, Centurius, Chemistro, Corruptor, Crossfire, Cutthroat, Deathwatch, Dr. Demonicus, Griffin, Jonas Harrow, Hood/Parker Robbins, Jigsaw, Madame Masque, Piledriver, Purple Man, Razor-Fist/Douglas Scott, Scarecrow/Ebenezer Laughton, Scorcher, Thunderball, Tiger Shark, Wrecker/Dirk Garthwaite, Wizard/Bentley Wittman), Batroc's Brigade (Batroc the Leaper, Swordsman/Jacques Duquesne), Lethal Legion (Power Man/Erik Josten, Whirlwind), Legion Accursed, Lethal Legion (Grim Reaper/Eric Williams, Man-Ape, Power Man/Erik Josten, Swordsman/Jacques Duquesne), Mandarin's Minions (Enchantress/Amora, Executioner/Skurge, Mandarin, Power Man/Erik Josten, Swordsman/Jacques Duquesne)
Man, Aftershock, Armadillo,
Blizzard (Don Gill), Brass
Bishop, Carlos, Marlo Chandler, Chemistro, Count
Crimson Dynamo, Deadly
Nightshade, Dynasty, Electro (Max Dillon), Ember, Erich, Firebrand
Goliath (Erik Josten),
Justine Hammer, Sasha Hammer, Jonas Harrow, Heinz, Hulk (Bruce Banner),
Jack, Rick Jones, Killer Shrike, Klaw,
Madame Menace, Man-Bull,
Mandarin, MAULER, Mentallo, Mentallo, Mephisto,
Hyde, MODOK, Moonstone (Karla Sofen), Old George, Marcy
Pearson, Penance (Robbie Baldwin), General
Pollock, Puma, Rocket Racer
(Bob Farrell), Spot, Spymaster
(Sinclair Abbott), Ezekiel Stane, Kenneth
Sturdy, Sub-Mariner (Namor), Taskmaster, Titanium
Man, Triumph Division, Uatu the
Ultra-Adaptoid, Valdez, Juliana Valencia, Juan Carlos Valencia, Vibro,
Wizard (Bentley Wittman);
formerly Lucy Barton
Enemies: AIM (Monica Rappaccini), Alpha Flight (Guardian/Heather Hudson, Nemesis/Amelia, Puck/Eugene Judd, Wildheart), Bambi Arbogast, Asgardians, Auric, Avengers (Beast/Henry McCoy, Black Panther/T'Challa, Luke Cage, Captain America/Steve Rogers, Dr. Stephen Strange, Echo/Maya Lopez, Falcon, Giant-Man/Yellowjacket/Hank Pym, Hawkeye/Goliath/Ronin/Clint Barton, Iron Fist/Danny Rand, Iron Man/Tony Stark, Quicksilver, Red Hulk/Thaddeus Ross, Scarlet Witch/Wanda Maximoff, Spider-Man/Peter Parker, Thor/Odinson, Vision, Wasp/Janet Van Dyne, Wolverine/James Howlett, Wonder Man/Simon Williams), Avengers (Captain America/Sam Wilson, Iron Man/Tony Stark, Ms. Marvel/Kamala Khan, Nova/Sam Alexander, Spider-Man/Miles Morales, Thor/Jane Foster, Vision), Avengers Unity Squad (Cable, Deadpool, Dr. Voodoo, Human Torch/Johnny Storm, Quicksilver, Rogue, Synapse), Lucy Barton, Beyonder, Bethany Cabe, Luke Cage, Captain America (Steve Rogers), Daredevil (Matt Murdock), Maggie Dillon, Bill Foster, Gauntlet (Joseph Green), Infinicide, Iron Man (Jim Rhodes), Iron Man (Tony Stark), Iron Man (Victor von Doom), Monica Lynne, Mandarin (Temujin), Quasar (Wendell Vaughn), Joseph Shapiro, SHIELD, Silver, Speedball (Robert Baldwin), Spider-Man (Peter Parker), Spider-Woman (Skrull, Veranke), Tigra, Alexander Van Tilburg, Whizzer (Bob Frank)
Known Relatives: None
Aliases: Impersonated Titanium Man, Tony Stark
Base of Operations: Mobile internationally
First Appearance: Avengers I#34 (November, 1966)
Powers/Abilities: Originally, Arthur Parks used wrist-mounted lasers that allowed him to focus highly concentrated beams of photons (which are particles of light), or laser beams, at various targets. The beams ranged from wide destructive blasts to pinpoints of focused light capable of bursting through steel. Parks designed other weapons for himself, such as boot jets allowing him to fly short distances and a massive laser cannon. In time, he implanted miniature graviton generations in sections of his skin, allowing him to absorb light, store it, and release it as a laser beam, generally fired from him hands. By storing up greater amounts of energy, Parks could utilize greater bursts of energy, create short-lived holographic images, teleport, hypnotize others, and render himself temporarily invisible.
After his powers were altered by Kenneth Sturdy, Parks lost his ability to control his powers and began absorbing light involuntarily, having to have it absorbed or dispelled to maintain corporeal form. In time, he transformed completely into an energy being made up of photons, held together by a human consciousness housed in an electrical field. Parks controls his energy form through sheer force of will, though he has varying levels of sanity and ability to control his own form. He can increase his photons' density and project them outward in laser blasts, can temporarily will himself solid, can travel at the speed of light, can create solid light constructs, can create complex holograms, shift his energy frequencies (to ultra-violet, radio waves, and others), bend light molecules to render himself invisible, disrupt energy attacks, and start fires with light molecules. Living Laser is capable of communicating with other beings telepathically briefly. He can survive in the vastness of space and has no need to eat, breathe, or sleep. Parks briefly wore the Serpent Crown, which gave him temporary powers granted by the Serpent God, Set. Living Laser can generally be repelled by mirrors or mirror-reflected shields. If his internal frequencies are disrupted, or overpowered by a stronger frequency, Living Laser's photons can be scattered, repelled, or absorbed. If human chi, or spirit, is utilized in an attack, Living Laser is still capable of feeling human pain. Living Laser was briefly given the power to track targeted heroes through the Asgardian Norn Stones, which also briefly increased his own powers.
Weight: (Human) 185 lbs.
Eyes: (Human) Blue
Hair: (Human) Brown
(Iron Man I#289 (fb) - BTS) - A talented research physicist, Arthur Parks loved the research early on in his career, eating cheap meals so he could afford expensive equipment.
(Avengers I#34 (fb) - BTS) - Parks was dating the beautiful Lucy Barton until she dumped him for a banker's son. Parks assumed she dumped him because he didn't have enough money. Bitter, he designed a deadly laser weapon and a costume that would help him get the money he needed to impress her.
(Avengers I#34) - Testing out his new costume, Parks broke into a bank vault, easily blasting through with his chest-mounted laser, taking the money, and escaping through the wall. Later, Parks saw Lucy talking to Janet Van Dyne, who he recognized as the Avenger Wasp. Parks immediately fell in love and grew determined to win Janet's heart by impressing her. He donned his costume again and, calling himself the Living Laser, staked out the Avengers so that he could get Giant-Man, the Wasp's boyfriend, alone and defeat him. He followed Wasp and Giant-Man to a lab, where they met Bill Foster. Living Laser watched through a hole he made in the roof until Wasp left, then blasted his way through to attack. Giant-Man did his best to defend himself, using machinery as a shield and changing size to avoid Living Laser's wrist-mounted weapons. The fight moved outside, where Giant-Man knocked Living Laser off his feet with a torn root, blinded him with thrown dirt, and wrapped him in his own cape before knocking him unconscious. Captain America and Hawkeye arrived to take Living Laser to jail, but the villain awakened aboard the airship and shot his way free through the floor, flying away with his jetpack. Laser designed a deadlier laser for his costume and tested it on a condemned building. He rigged a building with traps, then started firing at cars at random to lure the Avengers in. When Captain America and Hawkeye attacked, he trapped them in a cage of lasers, then lured the tiny Wasp into an air vacuum, where he knocked her out in a bottle with gas. He set the cage to restrict, planning on killing the Avengers, and departed with the Wasp.
(Avengers I#35) - Pleased with himself and his captive, Laser flew off, destroying more property before meeting with Costa Verden rebel leaders Valdez and Carlos, who agreed to pay him ten million to overthrow the Costa Verden dictator. Laser flirted with the captive Wasp, who refused his advances, then took her to Costa Verde, where he easily thwarted the government's tanks, planes, and soldiers with his powerful lasers. Learning that the Avengers had escaped his trap, he helped the rebels design a massive laser cannon, with which he shot down the Avengers' ship. As the Avengers approached the castle, Laser fired on them with precision until Hawkeye collapsed the roof on him. He used the cannon to again dislodge them into the water, then bragged to the Wasp of his success, telling her his real name and vowed to win her over. Laser secretly planned to rule Costa Verde himself, glorying in the power he held, but grew furious when he learned the Avengers were still alive. When Giant-Man tried freeing the Wasp, Laser knocked him out with a laser blast, then tied him up in powerful chains. He tied the captive Captain America and Hawkeye in front of his cannon and planned to kill them with a blow that would impress the Wasp, even when she escaped. He tried firing the cannon quickly, not knowing Giant-Man had sabotaged it. The resulting explosion left Laser defeated.
(Avengers Annual I#1) - When his wrist-mounted lasers appeared in his cell, Parks wondered where they'd come from but grew determined to use them to escape. He tinkered with them briefly, then used the lasers to cut through his bars and hold off the guards. Iron Man attacked and hit Parks with a repulsor ray and Parks hit the hero with a laser in return. Parks then brought down the ceiling just before he disappeared, teleported across the world by the Mandarin, who had given him the lasers in the first place. Parks put on a new costume Mandarin had designed for him, then met the other villains Mandarin had recruited for his new team Mandarin's Minions, including Enchantress, Executioner, Power Man, and Swordsman. Laser acted like he didn't need the allies, but quieted down when Mandarin seemingly destroyed potential recruit Sub-Mariner. Mandarin showed them a massive diamond he was planning on using to create a deadly weapon to rule the world with. He split the team into three on varying assignments, and Laser was assigned to take over a diamond rich area of South Africa. Given the mighty Ultimo as backup, he blasted a hole in Parliament and demanded the country be turned over to him. The citizens called him mad just as Thor and Hawkeye attacked and Laser avoided Thor's thrown hammer and returned fire on the heroes. Hawkeye exploded the ledge Laser was on, so Laser fled to the street, avoided more arrows, then took hostages in Parliament. When one of the hostages ran for a gun, Laser fired on him, but Thor deflected the laser with his hammer, then Hawkeye pinned Laser's gloves to the wall with arrows. The heroes managed to defeat Ultimo and left Laser tied up while they went after Mandarin.
(Captain America I#105) - Batroc the Leaper formed a new Brigade consisting of Living Laser and Swordsman. After Laser demonstrated his powers on a deadly weapon, he claimed he was only testing his teammates' nerves. Batroc announced that they were going to steal a newly developed Seismo-Bomb, then sell it to another nation for a million dollars. While they searched for it, Captain America attacked and defeated the Swordsman, just before a shockwave from the bomb went off, shaking the building. Laser held off Cap while Batroc kept searching, putting up a heat-barrier of lasers around the hero's shield to keep him from getting it. He shot at Captain America repeatedly until Cap smashed his laser units against the wall, breaking them. Another shock hit and Laser, realizing the city was in danger, gave up Batroc's location. Cap successfully disabled the bomb.
(Avengers I#78 (fb) - BTS) - Grim Reaper recruited Laser to be part of the new Lethal Legion, who planned to take down the Avengers. Teammates included Power Man, Swordsman, and Man-Ape.
(Avengers I#78) - Man-Ape brought the captive Avenger Black Panther, and his girlfriend Monica Lynne, before the Legion.
(Avengers I#79) - Grim Reaper yelled at his allies about how worthless they were before he bonded them, and they all grew impatient to get their revenge. They planned a trap for the Avengers, and Reaper ordered Laser and Man-Ape to wait at the nearby power station. When Captain America and Quicksilver arrived, Man-Ape knocked them off the stairs, but Quicksilver easily knocked Laser back with a punch. Laser fired repeatedly at the speedster, finally hitting him with scattered concrete, as Man-Ape defeated Cap. The others, meanwhile, captured Goliath (Hawkeye's new identity) and the Scarlet Witch, but Thor and Iron Man remained free. The Legion put the captive heroes in one mighty deathtrap as Power Man returned with a captive Vision, but the Reaper freed them when he learned Vision may be connected to his brother. Vision then revealed he'd been in Power Man's costume and attacked . The heroes rushed at them and Laser fired on Quicksilver again, who revealed that they'd only been feigning defeat before. The villains were all swiftly defeated.
(Avengers Annual I#6 (fb)) - While in prison, Parks started studying the legend of ancient Lemuria and learned of the Serpent Crown, an ancient artifact purported to give its wearer vast power. After his release, he searched for the Crown, but discovered it had been destroyed months before. Continuing to experiment with lasers, Parks used Brand Corporation's equipment to mutate himself, allowing him to utilize lasers from his own body, to create illusions and control light waves, and to teleport.
(Avengers Annual I#6 (fb) - BTS) - General Pollock contacted Parks, considering selling government secrets to him.
(Avengers I#151) - Laser saw the Wasp on a TV special and remembered his hatred for the Avengers. He talked to his ally, the General, and flew off wondering if he would pursue this new plan or not.
(Avengers Annual I#6 (fb) - BTS) - General Pollock sold information about Nuklo, an incredibly powerful radioactive being, who was being stored in a government hideout.
(Avengers I#153) - Creating illusions with his powers, Laser manipulated Whizzer (Bob Frank, the father of Nuklo) into attacking the Avengers while Laser ordered Wonder Man to escape from Avengers Mansion. Laser then went to the Brand/Roxxon facility, where the powerful Serpent Crown had been left, and he defeated Scarlet Witch to take possession of the Crown. After he overwhelmed the Brand security forces, Laser teleported back to Avengers mansion, where he hypnotized Wonder Man using his laser powers and the Serpent Crown. While Laser tracked down Pollock and Nuklo, Wonder Man was stopped by the Avengers. When Captain America and Iron Man attacked the base, Laser knocked them out from behind. The other Avengers then arrived and surprised Pollock's traitorous military forces, who helped Laser hold them back. Nuklo was soon freed from his containment and took down Laser in a blast. Nuklo was soon defeated and Laser was arrested.
(Avengers I#164) - Count Nefaria recruited Power Man and had him break Laser and Whirlwind out of prison. The trio stopped to rob a bank and Laser showed off his powers, destroying a cop car, until Captain America, Wasp, and Yellowjacket (Giant-Man's new identity) attacked, hitting Laser with a shield. The two insect Avengers zapped Laser repeatedly. Laser nearly killed Cap and Black Panther in a wide blast, but a hex from the Scarlet Witch doused him in water and sent the trio of villains running. They returned to Nefaria's mansion, wondering what his plans for them were.
(Avengers I#166 (fb)) - Nefaria had scientist Kenneth Sturdy work to boost the natural power levels of the three villains, increasing the capabilities of Laser's equipment. The empowered villains went to attack the Avengers.
(Avengers I#164) - Goliath threw a car threw the Avengers' window and the heroes, including Beast and Wonder Man, attacked. Black Panther hit Laser, who felt his increased powers draining and he collapsed. The villains didn't realize that Nefaria had stolen their powers, increasing his own a hundred-fold, and Nefaria then attacked the Avengers.
(Avengers I#166 - BTS) - Nefaria was defeated by the Avengers. Laser and the others were arrested.
(Iron Man I#153 (fb)) - Parks found himself absorbing light energy involuntarily and constantly glowing in the slow release of that energy; though he was able to give off small laser bursts, he feared he was dying. Now quite literally a living laser, Parks was approached by the Soviet government, who sought to drain the excess energy off him to power secret satellites. Thinking this might save his life, Parks agreed, ignoring his discomfort with betraying his country. Parks spent the following months learning better control over his new powers.
(Iron Man I#152) - Parks was stationed in East Germany at the Heaven's Hand base, where he was ordered to fight against the attacking Iron Man. Iron Man successfully liberated captives Alexander Van Tilburg and Bethany Cabe before Laser downed him with a macro-burst.
(Iron Man I#153) - Iron Man woke in restraints, his hands bound in aviation tape and positioned in front of a large laser cannon. When he asked about Laser's motives, Laser ordered the guards, including Erich and Heinz, out of the room. He shared his story, then noticed Iron Man had managed to free his hands. Iron Man evaded the laser cannon blast, which tore through the facility wall and sent the soldiers scurrying back. Laser and Iron Man both hit each other with a blast, then Laser bent light around him to appear invisible, but Iron Man still managed to knock him aside. Laser blew out the floor beneath Iron Man, he excited the electrons in the air to create fire around the hero. Iron Man magnetized the floor, causing it and Laser to collapse, but Laser tricked the hero with a hologram-monster, then moved in close to render the hero blind with a light blast. Iron Man, his eyes protected with polarization, threw Laser aside and Laser panicked when he felt himself start to overload. He focused his lasers into a beam that burned through Iron Man's armor and shoulder, then rushed off for the siphoning chambers, fearing an overload would set off the nuclear reactors. The doctors loaded him inside, but Iron Man stopped the process. Feeling he had no other choice, Iron Man rushed Laser into the upper atmosphere, where he exploded in a vast blast of light.
(Code of Honor#3) - While most of the NYC's big-name heroes were away fighting in the Beyonder's "Secret Wars," Living Laser partnered with Moonstone, Killer Shrike and another villain in criminal endeavors. They were stopped by Wonder Man and Beast.
(Secret Wars II#7) - Living Laser was one of the 99 villains brought together by Mephisto's agent Bitterhorn to destroy the Beyonder by completing the circuit between the Beyonder and the Beyondersbane.
(Iron Man I#211 (fb) - BTS) - Parks' energies were slowly collected by a communications satellite. His human consciousness tried to take control and started interfering with the satellite's systems over the following months.
(Iron Man I#211) - Iron Man came to investigate the satellite just as Parks exploded from it. He raced toward the Earth as a light beam and landed in California, where he took on a transparent human form. A vagrant named Old George offered him a drink, but Parks couldn't hold the bottle. Police Jack and Michael tried arresting him, but couldn't touch him. Parks blasted the guns out of their hands and rushed off. Disoriented and panicking that he wasn't human, Laser lashed out at Iron Man, in a new armor, when the hero offered to help him. He fired multiple laser bursts, phased through Iron Man's attacks, and even turned himself into a laser beam. When another Iron Man approached in the original armor (Jim Rhodes), Laser pursued him, boasting he could move at the speed of light but recognizing he was limited by his own focus and thought. He finally trapped this Iron Man in the woods and prepared to kill him, but the other arrived and the two heroes, working together, trapped Laser in a highly reflective optic cell, which Laser could only bounce around inside but not escape.
(Quasar#6) - Flying over New York, Laser noticed new hero Quasar with a captive Klaw. He used his laser energy to cut through Quasar's quantum cage, freeing Klaw, then traded several shots with Quasar, who's blasts passed harmlessly through Laser, who bound photons to air molecules to create a laser sword. When Quasar managed to lock in on Laser's energy, Laser felt himself discorporating and panicked. He rushed at the speed of light to the blue area of the moon, where he soon saw Quasar following. Not wanting to run, he found his way into the Watcher's citadel, where he became incredibly disoriented. Quasar followed him and Laser tried fleeing, running right into the alien Watcher. He rushed through an extradimensional portal to escape to Earth-105709.
(Quasar#30 (fb) - BTS) - The Laser quickly realized he was in an alternate reality when he found his own dimensional counterpart. Panicking, he rushed back to the moon and through the extradimensional portal again, returning home. However, he created a temporal counterpart who continued splitting through other realities. Quasar later apprehended these counterparts.
(Iron Man I#260 (fb) - BTS) - Hearing that the original Iron Man had died, Laser felt like he was cheated of his revenge. He sought to prove the new Iron Man was the same as the original by using his hologram powers to appear as the Titanium Man, who the original Iron Man had reportedly killed in combat.
(Iron Man I#258) - Laser, as Titanium Man, attacked Stark's nuclear research facility, causing several reactors to overload and destroying much of the area. Iron Man arrived and disabled two of the reactors. As he moved to the third, "Titanium Man's ghost" revealed himself.
(Iron Man I#259) - "Titanium Man" fired several shots at Iron Man, trapping him in the wreckage, but the hero rushed past and managed to dislodge the reactor and explode it in the ocean, away from the facility. Over the following two days, Iron Man went missing, and Laser set up shards of mirrors inside the facility wreckage, making it look much like the inside of a diamond. When Iron Man finally returned, he admitted that he'd killed the original Titanium Man. Thrilled he could finally have his revenge, Laser revealed himself and prepared to kill the hero.
(Iron Man I#260) - Laser let off a massive burst that magnified and reflected as it hit the glassy surfaces, leaving Iron Man to barely protect himself under an energy shield. He hit Iron Man with a massive blast and wondered if he'd destroyed the hero, but Iron Man tried attacking him physically. Laser continually switched back and forth between solid and intangible, striking the hero repeatedly. Iron Man briefly downed the Laser by setting his repulsors to an antagonistic frequency, but Laser focused a blast of light through Iron Man's shoulder like he had years before. As the building crashed down around them, Iron Man fell over, seemingly in a coma. Laser, unwilling to kill his foe in this manner, rushed off in frustration.
(Iron Man I#263) - A few days later, Laser returned to Stark's headquarters to find Iron Man again. He hit the hero with a massive blast, making sure to fuse the circuitry in his glove so he couldn't disrupt his light frequencies again. He planned to fuse the entire suit, then to pierce the armor and kill the hero through his brain, but Avengers Wonder Man and Dr. Pym arrived to help Iron Man. Wonder Man held Laser off with a mirror shield until Laser phased, making Wonder Man crash into a mountain. Wonder Man came out the other side, though, and hit the solid laser, who savagely tried to burn Wonder Man's face off with a blast. Iron Man then used his other repulsor ray to disrupt Laser's frequencies, scattering his substance through the atmosphere.
(Iron Man I#289 (fb) - BTS) - After reincorporating, Laser decided to get his final revenge on Tony Stark. He began using his holograms to pose as Stark at Stark facilities to find out his secrets.
(Iron Man I#286) - Jim Rhodes saw "Stark" at a meeting.
(Iron Man I#287) - Marcy Pearson saw "Stark" at Stark Enterprises.
(Iron Man I#288) - "Stark" entered the main offices of S.E., where he knocked out Bambi Arbogast, then revealed himself as the Laser to Jim Rhodes, the company's new CEO.
(Iron Man I#289) - Laser angrily demanded Stark to reveal himself, but learned from Rhodes that Stark was dead, explaining everyone's bizarre reactions to seeing Stark the past few days. Laser then demanded Iron Man, but Rhodes caught him off-guard by telling him Iron Man was fired and by offering Laser a job as a researcher, giving him state-of-the-art facilities and a million dollars a day. Laser, remembering his early career, agreed and took a tour of the facility. Rhodes left briefly and came back in a prismapolymer refractive coated armor, which was theoretically laser-proof. Laser, disgusted that he'd fallen for the trick, savagely attacked this Iron Man again and again, none of his blasts breaking through. Iron Man hit Laser with repeated physical blows and knocked him through the floor to the facility's communications chamber. When Laser refused to surrender, Iron Man had him absorbed into a communications laser that was aimed at the Andromeda Galaxy. As he vanished, Laser commented on how cruel Rhodes was to condemn him so.
(Alpha Flight I#121) - Alongside several villains, Laser attended the Brass Bishop's auction of Silver and Auric. Spider-Man and Alpha Flight (Guardian (Heather Hudson), Nemesis (Amelia), Puck (Eugene Judd), Wildheart) attacked and Laser fled.
(Incredible Hulk II#418) - Hearing the Hulk's sidekick Rick Jones was marrying Marlo Chandler, Laser (who'd returned to Earth) and other villains decided to taunt him. Laser, Wizard, Mr. Hyde, and Absorbing Man showed up at the wedding with invitations, hoping to taunt the Hulk into a fight, but he refused to fight them.
(New Avengers I#1) - Living Laser was imprisoned at the Raft when Electro overloaded the systems and freed dozens of criminals.
(New Avengers I#2) - The villains swarmed out of their cells, battling Spider-Man, Captain America, Daredevil, Spider-Woman, Iron Man, Luke Cage, and agents of SHIELD.
(New Avengers I#3) - The massive battle continued.
(New Avengers I#4 - BTS) - Many of the criminals successfully escaped.
(Iron Man: The Inevitable#2 (fb) - BTS) - Parks' consciousness, which was believed to have been scattered, addled, and collected multiple times, was stored by a pair of criminals who appropriated and resold weapons on the black market. With Parks' mind inert, his energy was stored in an energy tube and was being resold as a programmable weapons system. Stark, meanwhile, appropriated some journals that Parks had written while human and in prison, noting that all the entries were addressed to Lucy.
(Iron Man: The Inevitable#1) - Stark purchased the tube that housed Laser's energy and took it back to his company. He hired super human psychiatrist Maggie Dillon to make contact with Laser, who'd been hooked up to a special system to contain the laser energy.
(Iron Man: The Inevitable#2) - Dillon started using technology to enter the energy tube, making her first attempts at contacting Parks at risk to her own health. She detected Parks inside screaming in pain.
(Iron Man: The Inevitable#3 - BTS) - Using more Stark technology, Dillon kept trying to make contact with Parks. She found where it was housed in the energy system.
(Iron Man: The Inevitable#4) - Dillon finally made contact with Parks, who appeared before her as a young child claiming not to know who Arthur was and stating that the energy system was starting to not feel like home. Slowly reminding him of his human side, Maggie stood firm when he tried blasting her with energy in frustration and followed him when he tried flying off. She easily caught up to him, challenging him to free himself from his self-imposed mental prison. Fully aware, he remembered being a criminal and started withdrawing further in himself even as he pushed on the barriers of his energy prison. He blasted outward in a mighty explosion, killing Dillon as he rushed free.
(Iron Man: The Inevitable#6) - Glorying in his power and feeling like he had a new chance for revenge, Laser attacked Iron Man, who'd been battling Spymaster (Sinclair Abbott). He fired a focused burst on Iron Man, piercing his armor on his left bicep and burning him. Laser chased Iron Man through the air, set a building on fire, and hit the hero with multiple bursts of focused light. Wanting Iron Man to die, Laser was shocked when Iron Man used his new armor to absorb the Laser's energy into his system. He then placed him in a new holding cell.
(Super-Villain Team-Up II#1 (fb) - BTS) - MODOK contacted Living Laser, offering him five million dollars to work for him. Laser, feeling that the money could help him become human again, agreed.
(Super-Villain Team-Up II#1) - Laser showed up tot he meeting with MODOK alongside several other criminals, including Deadly Nightshade, Chameleon (secretly Ultra-Adaptoid), Spot, Armadillo, Mentallo, Puma, and Rocket Racer. Seeing a pile of money, the villains briefly fought over who would get to claim it. Laser blasted Armadillo before MODOK broke up the fight, explaining that all their talents would be needed to steal the Hypernova device from the Infinicide. The Hypernova, he explained, was the ultimate fuel source, more powerful than the sun, and the Infinicide, a group of evolved beings who briefly appeared in the timeline to study events.
(Super-Villain Team-Up II#2) - MODOK lead the criminals in a mental training exercise to steal the Infinicide, but the criminals were all "killed" when they tried it, Laser getting caught in an energy barrier and broken apart. As they listened to MODOK lay out the plan, Mentallo tried invading Mentallo's mind, finding it a complex series of quantum energies barely held together by Laser's consciousness. Later, they boarded a shop for China, Laser uncomfortable as they got to know each other.
(Super-Villain Team-Up II#3) - While "Chameleon" infiltrated the Infinicide, the villains followed Armadillo through a tunnel underneath it. When it was time, Spot opened up a teleport hole and Laser, altering beyond the visible spectrum, took the place of the Hypernova on the ship while Puma stole it. Laser made sure to give off enough alpha particles to fool the Inficide's energy level monitors. Laser almost lost himself to the spectrum, overwhelmed by the evolved energy system. He freed himself and found "Chameleon" and Puma waiting, but Spot abandoned them there. They panicked when the Infinicide's security system responded to them. As they ran, they saw the Infinicide's MODOK-like occupants and witnessed Puma lose his powers. Laser and Puma fled while "Chameleon" held the agents off. Laser held the agents off of Puma, infuriated by Puma complaining that he was human again. Then the Infinicide went crashing to the ground, with no Hypernova to power it.
(Super-Villain Team-Up II#4) - The three villains survived the explosion, not knowing it was due to the Ultra-Adaptoid's use of an invisible shield. They reunited with the others just before Rocket Racer picked them up in the Big Wheel. They went chasing after the Mandarin, who'd taken the Hypernova aboard his dragon-ship. Laser flew after it, promising to update the others by beaming his voice back as radio waves. He soon found Mandarin before the Hypernova and tried sneaking up on him. Laser was shocked beyond belief when Mandarin not only detected him, but managed to harness his chi in hurting Laser with a kick. Suddenly overcome with feeling something as human as pain, Laser begged Mandarin to hurt him again and again. Mandarin soon trapped Laser in an energy bubble and tried crushing him within it. Puma, with his powers restored, attacked Mandarin then and the ship crashed to the ground.
(Super-Villain Team-Up II#5) - Laser reformed himself just in time to absorb a blast Mandarin directed at Nightshade. Revealing his true nature, the Ultra-Adaptoid attacked the others, demanding to know where the Hypernova was, hitting Laser with a fiery blast and using a shield to stop Laser's blasts. They soon stopped the Adaptoid and found the Hypernova, which Laser revealed he'd had. He confessed to placing a solid hologram next to the real Hypernova, and bending light around the other to render it invisible. He planned to open the Hypernova and use it to turn his energy into human matter again. When the others threatened to kill him, he didn't care, willing to experience seconds of humanity rather than none at all. The Hypernova absorbed Laser, then teleported back to MODOK, who'd secretly replaced the Hypernova with a construct of his own and trapped the Laser. Monica Rappaccini and AIM then purchased the false Hypernova from MODOK, but when they got it back to headquarters, an insane Laser came out of it and blew up in a mighty explosion, seemingly killing the entire AIM branch.
(New Avengers I#35) - Laser attended a meeting, alongside several criminals, held by the Hood, who was seeking to organize crime in New York. Hood offered them each $25,000 to affiliate with him and several criminals took him up on the offer.
(New Avengers Annual#2) - Laser was part of the Hood's super villain army that ambushed the "New" Avengers base at Dr. Strange's mansion. After a deadly battle with the heroes (Luke Cage, Dr. Strange, Echo, Iron Fist, Ronin, Spider-Man, Wolverine), the villains were defeated by a Zom-powered Strange and picked up by SHIELD.
(New Avengers I#46 (fb) - BTS) - Living Laser was apparently freed by the Hood.
(New Avengers#46) - Living Laser was present along with the rest of the Hood's army when they tortured a SHIELD agent who proved to be a Skrull. Guided by Demonicus, the Hood used his demonic powers to determine that a skrull was impersonating the Slug, and he shot and killed the imposter.
(New Avengers I#50) - When Cage's Avengers tried to lure Osborn's Avengers into a trap at an old Hellfire Club base, Osborn instead contacted the Hood who led his super-villain army to assault Cage's Avengers (Cage, Captain America/James Barnes, Ms. Marvel/Carol Danvers, Ronin/Clint Barton, Spider-Man, Spider-Woman/Jessica Drew, Wolverine/Logan/James Howlett). Living Laser joined the Hood, Answer, Blackout, Blood Brother, Brother(s) Grimm, Centurius, Chemistro, Corruptor, Crossfire, Cutthroat, Dr. Demonicus, [Dormammu], Griffin, Jigsaw, Madame Masque, Mandrill, Razor-Fist, Scarecrow, Shockwave, Slug, Vermin, Wizard, the Wrecking Crew in this assault. Ms. Marvel channeled Spider-Woman's power to stun the criminals and allow the Avengers to escape.
(New Avengers I#55 (fb)) - After the battle with the Avengers, the Hood's gang collected themselves, with Living Laser seemingly in human form.
(Dark Reign: The Hood#1) - The Hood put Chemistro, Centurius, Demonicus, the Answer, and Living Laser on a special project. He promised to be in touch soon.
(Avengers: The Initiative#25) - At the Hood's orders, Living Laser, Scorcher, Griffin, and Razor-Fist pursued Gauntlet and Tigra into the New York sewers, but the heroes escaped in a mysterious cave-in. Later, the Hood's army took base at the Initiative headquarters at Camp HAMMER in New Mexico, posing as registered super-heroes under Osborn's regime.
(New Avengers I#55) - When the Hood went missing with Madame Masque and John King, the other members of his gang argued over who would take a leadership role. A seemingly human Living Laser invited the Wrecking Crew to get out on their own. Jonas Harrow soon announced his plans to use a power inhibitor against the Avengers. Members of the Hood's gang included: Piledriver, Thunderball, Bulldozer, Wrecker, Griffin, Tiger Shark, Brothers Grimm, Living Laser, Blood Brother, Blackout, Corruptor, Crossfire, Mandrill, Dr. Demonicus, Shockwave, Scarecrow, Corruptor, Chemistro, and others.
(New Avengers I#57) - The Living Laser watched Osborn agree to Harrow's terms. The power dampener switched off, allowing the New Avengers to escape via a Quinjet that blasted the assembled army of villains.
(Avengers: The Initiative#27) - Living Laser, Scorcher, and Penance accompanied Taskmaster to the Negative Zone, where they destroyed several aliens who'd been holding prison 42.
(New Avengers I#60) - A furious Hood returned to his army and killed Jonas Harrow for his betrayal. Hood chided the criminals for their panicked actions, and told them they now had to follow Osborn's orders. Osborn told them to hunt the unregistered heroes and bring them back, dead or alive.
(New Avengers I#61) - The Hood used the Asgardian Norn Stones to give those in his army the ability to track down the targeted heroes, increasing their own strength and power as well. Living Laser immediately attacked the two Captain Americas (Steve Rogers, recently back from the dead, and James Barnes), scattering them with a near fatal laser burst. He was briefly disrupted when they fired back on him, then he waited impatiently as the Corruptor forced them to battle each other, wanting simply to kill them but standing aside. When a wayward shot defeated Corruptor, Living Laser turned up the heat on the two heroes.
(New Avengers I#62) - Laser's fight with Luke Cage and the Captain Americas continued. Distracted by a punch to the head by Cage, Barnes took the opportunity to elecroctue Living Laser.
(New Avengers I#64 (fb)) - The Hood approached his army and let them know of Osborn’s offer to make them certified heroes if they participated in the siege on Asgard. Living Laser and Mandrill were teased about their failure to ensnare the Avengers. Mandrill opted out of the deal, feeling like Osborn was using them all as cannon fodder, so the Hood violently ripped his powers away from him, leaving Mandrill in pain. Mandrill quickly changed his mind and returned to the group.
(Avengers: The Initiative#34) - During the battle for Camp: HAMMER, Living Laser fired on Gauntlet, who held him off with his armored arm. Soon, Hood ordered his soldiers to abandon the site and teleport with him to Asgard to aid Osborn in battle.
(Siege#3/New Avengers I#63/Thor I#608) - In the ensuing battle with Asgard, Living Laser fired upon multiple Asgardians, as well as Spider-Woman and Mockingbird.
(New Avengers I#64) - Later, during the siege of Asgard, Loki took away all their additional powers as the city crashed around them.
(Thunderbolts I#158/Fear Itself: Homefront#2/1 (fb) - BTS) – Living Laser was ridiculing Man-Bull when an explosion wrecked the Raft, leading to a mass breakout of prisoners. Living Laser, along with Aftershock, Ember, Icemaster, and Whirlwind, stole a craft and made a run for it, determined to wreak havoc.
(Fear Itself: Homefront#2/1) – The villains attacked the town of Stamford, CT, where Living Laser blasted over a church steeple and the others tortured civilians. When Speedball attacked, Living Laser blasted him multiple times and they soon defeated the hero, but the villains chose to run for it. During the fight, Living Laser had cajoled Speedball about their time in the Initiative together. As they departed, Living Laser ridiculed Icemaster about consuming too many fruit pies.
(Avengers: X-Sanction I#1) – The Lethal Legion (Grim Reaper, Living Laser, Radioactive Man, Whirlwind) escaped from their prison transport craft only to be attacked by the Avengers (Captain America, Falcon, Iron Man, Red Hulk, Spider-Man, Wolverine). Iron Man fought Living Laser.
(Invincible Iron Man I#510 – BTS) – Mandarin, Ezekiel Stane, Justine Hammer, and Sasha Hammer discussed their plans for Living Laser, saying he was ready for action.
(Invincible Iron Man I#511) – Stane and Mandarin sent Living Laser, in new armor, to attack Iron Man. He exploited a weakness in Iron Man’s armor by actually entering the armor and taking a recording of it, sending the hero into cardiac arrest, then returned the data to Stane at light speed, where he learned Mandarin could kill him if he wanted.
(Invincible Iron Man I#512) – At their base in China, Living Laser discussed the kill switch with Blizzard.
(Invincible Iron Man I#513) – Mandarin and Stane stood before a large group of Iron Man’s foes, including Blizzard, Chemistro, Crimson Dynamo, Firebrand, Firepower, MAULER, Melter, Titanium Man, Vibro, and Whirlwind, and prepped them for battle.
(Invincible Iron Man I#515) – After Whirlwind and the Melter severely wounded War Machine in California, Living Laser flew in and delivered the kill shot before Iron Man could get there, then the villains fled.
(Invincible Iron Man I#522) – Living Laser and others were sent out by Mandarin to gather materials to build a weapon of mass destruction (WMD).
(Invincible Iron Man I#524) - Living Laser, Whirlwind, and Blizzard turned against Mandarin secretly, joining Stark and Stane.
(Invincible Iron Man I#525) - The three villains fought Mandarin's forces, destroying his armory, and Laser got particularly angry and destructive in battle.
(Invincible Iron Man I#526) - The villains joined Iron Man against Mandarin, who was launching giant weapons, The battle ended when Stane seemingly killed Mandarin.
(Invincible Iron Man I#527) - China honored those who had saved them from the Mandarin.
(Iron Man V#3) - Living Laser, Vibro, and Firebrand (Amanda) were hired by Juan Carlos Valencia to protect his daughter Juliana, an Extremis recipient to save her from cancer, against Iron Man; Iron Man bested the three and they were dismissed only partially paid.
SECRET WARS III HAPPENED
(All-New All-Different Avengers#8) - The villains of Pleasant Hill, including Living Laser, got their memories and identities back and battled the Avengers and Avengers Unity Squad.
(Civil War II: The Accused#1) - Daredevil defeated Living Laser, Madame Menace, and Blizzard in Hell's Kitchen.
(Captain America: Steve Rogers#13) - Baron Helmut Zemo formed the new Army of Evil, including Mr. Hyde, Tiger Shark, Klaw, and Living Laser.
(Infamous Iron Man I#7) - At Herbie's, Wizard warned a group of criminals, including Living Laser, that Dr. Doom had turned heroic and was now Iron Man. Iron Man then attacked, defeating the criminals and sending them to the Cellar.
(Defenders V#10) – Living Laser was nearly recruited by the Hood to rejoin his army, but a group of heroes arrived to shut them down.
Comments: Created by Stan Lee and Don Heck.
Living Laser has entries in Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe I#6, Deluxe Edition#7, Master Edition and All-New OHotMU Update#1.
Costa Verde may be an
homage to the Matt Helm novel "The Ambushers," which also features a
country by that name.
Thanks to Spidermay for his help with portions of this profile.
Profile by Chadman.
Living Laser has no known connections to
Iron Man: The Inevitable#6, p10, pan4 (main)
All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Update#1, p20, pan3 (2nd)
All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Update#1, p20, pan2 (3rd)
Iron Man I#259, p22, pan1 (yellow humanoid form)
Super-Villain Team-Up II#2, p10, pan4-5 (pink energy)
Invincible Iron Man I#511, p17, pan2 (new armor)
Avengers I#34-35 (November-December, 1966) - Stan Lee (writer/editor), Don Heck (penciler/inker)
Avengers Annual I#1 (September, 1967) - Roy Thomas (writer), Don Heck (penciler), George Roussos (inker), Stan Lee (editor)
Captain America I#105 (September, 1968) - Stan Lee (writer/editor), Jack Kirby (penciler), Dan Adkins (inker)
Avengers I#78 (July, August, 1970) - Roy Thomas (writer), John Buscema (penciler/inker), Stan Lee (editor)
Avengers I#151 (September, 1976) - Gerry Conway, Steve Englehart (writers), George Perez (penciler), John Tartag (inker), Jim Shooter (writer/editor)
Avengers I#153 (November, 1976) - Gerry Conway (writer/editor), John Buscema (penciler), Joe Sinnott (inker)
Avengers Annual I#6 (1976) - Gerry Conway (writer), George Perez (penciler), Mike Esposito, Duffy Vohland, John Tartaglione (inkers), Gerry Conway (editor)
Avengers I#164-166 (October-December, 1977) - Jim Shooter (writer), John Byrne (penciler), Pablo Marcos (inker), Archie Goodwin (editor) - 165 MISSING
Iron Man I#152-153 (November-December, 1981) - David Michelinie (writer), John Romita, Jr (penciler), Bob Layton (inker), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Secret Wars II#7 (January, 1986) - Jim Shooter (writer), Al Milgrom (pencils), Steve Leialoha (inks), Bob Budiansky (editor)
Iron Man I#211 (October, 1986) - Howard Mackie (writer), Alex Saviuk (penciler), Sam Delarosa (inker), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Quasar#6 (January, 1990) - Mark Gruenwald (writer), Paul Ryan (penciler), Danny Bulanadi (inker), Howard Mackie (editor)
Quasar#30 (January, 1992) - Mark Gruenwald (writer), Joey Zulueta, Pat Broderick (pencilers), Fred Fredericks (inker), Kelly Corvese (editor)
Iron Man I#258-260 (July-September, 1990) - John Byrne (writer), John Romita, Jr. (penciler), Bob Wiacek (inker), Howard Mackie (editor)
Iron Man I#263 (December, 1990) - John Byrne (writer), John Romita, Jr. (penciler), Bob Wiacek (inker), Howard Mackie (editor)
Iron Man I#286-288 (November, 1992-January, 1993) - Len Kaminski (writer), Kevin Hopgood (penciler), Mike DeCarlo (inker), Nel Yomtov (editor)
Iron Man I#289 (February, 1993) - Len Kaminski (writer), Tom Morgan (penciler), Brad Vancata (inker), Nel Yomtov (editor)
Alpha Flight I#121 (June, 1993) - Simon Furman (writer), Craig Brasfield (penciler), Frank Turner (inker), Tom DeFalco (editor)
Incredible Hulk II#418 (June, 1994) - Peter David (writer), Gary Frank (penciler), Cam Smith (inker), Bobbie Chase (editor)
Code of Honor#3 (April, 1997) - Chuck Dixon (writer), Bob Wakelin, Derick Gross & Paul Lee (artists), Kelly Corvese (editor)
New Avengers I#1 (January, 2005) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), David Finch (penciler), Danny Miki (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
New Avengers I#2 (February, 2005) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), David Finch (penciler), Danny Miki, Mark Morales (inkers), Tom Brevoort (editor)
New Avengers I#3 (March, 2005) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), David Finch (penciler), Danny Miki, Allen Martinez, Victor Olazaba (inkers), Tom Brevoort (editor)
New Avengers I#4 (April, 2005) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), David Finch (penciler), Danny Miki (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Iron Man: The Inevitable#1-4, 6 (February-May, July, 2006) - Joe Casey (writer), Frazer Irving (penciler/inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Super-Villain Team-Up II#1-5 (September, 2007-January, 2008) - Fred Van Lente (writer), Francis Portela (penciler), Terry Pallot (inker), Nathan Cosby (editor)
New Avengers I#35 (December, 2007) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Leinil Yu (penciler/inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
New Avengers Annual#2 (February, 2008) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Carlo Pagulayan (penciler), Jeff Huet (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
New Avengers I#46 (December, 2008) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Billy Tan (pencils), Matt Banning (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
New Avengers I#50 (April, 2009) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Billy Tan (pencils), Matt Banning (inks), Jeanine Schaefer, Tom Brevoort (editor)
Dark Reign: The Hood#1 (July, 2009) - Jeff Parker (writer), Kyle Hotz (penciler/inker), Bill Rosemann (editor)
Avengers: The Initiative#25 (September, 2009) - Christos Gage (writer), Humberto Ramos (penciler/inker), Jeanine Schaefer (editor)
New Avengers I#55 (September, 2009) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Stuart Immonen (penciler), Wade von Grawbadger (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Avengers: The Initiative#27 (October, 2009) - Christos Gage (writer), Rafa Sandoval (penciler), Roger Bonet (inker), Bill Rosemann, Jeanine Schaefer (editor)
New Avengers I#57 (November, 2009) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Stuart Immonen (pencils), Wade von Grawbadger (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
New Avengers I#60 (February, 2010) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Stuart Immonen (penciler), Wade Von Grawbadger (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
New Avengers I#61-62 (March-April, 2010) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Stuart Immonen & Daniel Acuna (pencils), Wade Von Grawbadger (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Avengers: The Initiative#34 (May, 2010) - Christos Gage (writer), Jorge Molina (penciler), Andrew Hennessy (inker), Bill Rosemann (editor)
Siege#3 (May, 2010) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Olivier Coipel (pencils), Mark Morales (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
New Avengers I#63 (May, 2010) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Mike McKone (artist), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Thor I#608 (May, 2010) - Kieron Gillen (writer), Rich Elson (artist), Ralph Macchio (editor)
New Avengers I#64 (June, 2010) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Mike McKone (penciler/inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Fear Itself: Homefront#2/1 (July, 2011) - Christos Gage (writer), Mike Mayhew (penciler/inker), Lauren Sankovitch (editor)
Thunderbolts I#158 (August, 2011) - Jeff Parker (writer), Kev Walker (artist), Tom Brennan (editor)
Avengers: X-Sanction I#1 (January, 2012) - Jeph Loeb (writer), Ed McGuinness (penciler), Dexter Vines (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Invincible Iron Man I#510 (January, 2012) - Matt Fraction (writer), Salvador Larrocca (penciler/inker), Alejandro Arbona (editor)
Invincible Iron Man I#522 (November, 2012) – Matt Fraction (writer), Salvador Larroca (penciler/inker), Mark Paniccia (editor)
Invincible Iron Man I#524-527 (2012) - Matt Fraction (writer), Salvador Larrocca (penciler/inker), Mark Paniccia (editor)
Iron Man V#3 (February, 2013) - Kieron Gillen (writer), Greg Land (penciler), Jay Leisten (inker), Mark Paniccia (editor)
All-New All-Different Avengers#8 (June, 2016) - Mark Waid (writer), Adam Kubert (artist), Tom Brevoort, Wil Moss (editors)
Civil War II: The Accused#1 (October, 2016) - Marc Guggenheim (writer), Ramon Bachs, Garry Brown (artists), Katie Kubert (editor)
Captain America: Steve Rogers#13 (May, 2017) - Nick Spencer (writer), Ro Stein (penciler), Ted Brandt (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Infamous Iron Man I#7 (June, 2017) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Alex Maleev (artist), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders V#10 (April, 2018) – Brian Michael Bendis (writer), David Marquez (artist), Tom Brevoort (editor)
First Posted: 09/17/08
Last updated: 03/01/18
Any Additions/Corrections? please let me know.
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