ROXXON ENERGY CORPORATION
Executives: Douglas Bravner (Sunturion Project executive), August D'Angelo (Chairman of the Board), Jack Gamelin, Terrence Gerard (Vice President), Jonas Hale (director of Research, Vice President), Samuel Higgins (Facility Director, Denver), Carrington Pax (executive in West Coast division), Huck Petrie (executive), Benedict Pierce (Director of Sea-Going Operations), Brian Sagar (Vice President), Myrna Simpkins (Vice President; formerly of Hydropolis), Mike Tappan (executive under Carrington Pax), David Walsh (C.E.O.);
Former executives: Clayton Burr (President of International Relations), Brandon Chambers (executive), Mr. Clarkson (Vice President, Texas), Ian Forbes (director, Belfast facility), John T. Gamelin (director of Foreign Operations, later President), Calvin Halderman (President), Curtis Henshaw (executive, R&D, Bolivian facility), Jerome "Jerry" K. Jaxon (Associate Vice President of Special Developments), Hugh Jones (President), Don Kaminski (President), Simon Krieger (Vice President, Republic Oil & Natural Gas), Linden Laswell (executive, the Latveria project), Magma (Jonathan Darque, project head, Temple Corners, VA), Henry Mason (Vice President);
Staff: Bill (helicopter pilot, Long Island), Carson (security operative), Chester (floating oil refinery worker), Chief Compton (underground NYC facility supervisor), Larry Curtiss (security operative), Davis (scientist, assistant to Jonas Harrow), Delvecchio (underground NYC facility), Jim Dworman (former Cybertek programmer, in charge of Cybertek's shutdown), Gail (secretary to Carrington Pax), Gordon (underground NYC facility), Grist (underground NYC facility security), Jake (security guard, Denver), Joe (floating oil refinery worker), Juan (executive asst. to Hale in San Francisco), Ms. Loring (scientist under Hale, Nuform project), Missy (agent), Patrick Nestor (company spokesman), Dr. Malachi Oz (scientist), Riki (boardroom chair, One Roxxon Plaza), Cindy Shelton (lead researcher), Raymond Sikorski (recruiter with Roxxon Blackridge), Walter (executive assistant to President Gamelin), Jillan Woods (Sepulchre, agent for Roxxon Blackridge), Chief Wyngard (underground NYC facility supervisor);
Former staff: Cary Albertson (scientist, bio-chip project, Sault Ste. Marie facility), Babs Bendix (secretary), Blair (agent), Kenneth H. Bradley (covert operative, former Brand security), Phillip Chambers (scientist), Roberta "Bobbie" Haggert (scientist on Omega-32 project), Seth Hanks (child savant, unwilling employee), Paul Hazlett (scientist), Dan Jermain (Danger Man, former security inspector), Jacob Johnston (technician), Kelly (underground NYC facility security), Kristy (assistant to Mr. Clarkson), Lewis (underground NYC facility security), Alexander Lipton (scientist), Mischa and Yuri (biochemists), Moyer (agent), Duncan O'Neill (mole within MI-5: British Secret Agent 003), Jack Rollins (SHIELD agent who infitrated Roxxon), Dr. Gerald Roth, Schroeder (underground NYC facility security), Michael Thomas (corporate spy);
"Super" operatives (all former): Delphine Courtney (robot, assistant to Jerry Jaxon), Cypress (assassin), Dogs of War (Afghan, Bulldog, Doberman, Greyhound, Labrador, Mastiff, Rotttweiler, Shepherd, Wolfhound: armed mercenaries), Grasshopper (Douglas Taggert, armored security), Grasshopper (Neil, armored security), Killer Shrike, Manticore, Quartermaster (scientist, superhuman), the Saboteurs (armored agents), Serpent Squad (Anaconda, Black Mamba, Death Adder, Sidewinder; superhuman agents), SHIELD Mandroids, Stratosfire (secretary; superhuman), Sunturion (scientist; superhuman), Windshear (enhanced mutant);
Hirelings (all former): Thomas Agar, Anton Aubuisson, Assault and Battery, Coldblood-7, Firebolt, Fixer, Flag-Smasher (mind-controlled operative), the Ghost, Dr. Jonas Harrow (scientist, Rye Research Facility & underground NYC facility), Hellrazor, Ivory, Mad Dog, Mycroft, Omega Flight, Overrider, Parnival Plunder, Michael Rossi, Smokescream, Spymaster, the Voice (Angar the Screamer), Jennifer Walters (attorney).
Purpose: "To gain a world energy monopoly by eradicating any effective private or governmental competition."
Owning company: Kronas Corporation;
Subsidiary organizations: the Black Hoods, Blackridge (apparently also known as Blackguard), Brand (now closed), Cybertek (now closed), Metrobank, Nth Command (now defunct), WYDY Television (New York City);
Predecessor companies: Republic Oil and Natural Gas; Roxxon Oil Company. Although currently incorporated as the Roxxon Energy Corporation, it is still popularly referred to by any number of variations on that: Roxxon Oil, Roxxon Oil and Inorganics, the Roxxon Corporation, the Roxxon Company, etc.
Business associates: Black Tarantula, Brazilian Logging Enterprises (including Antonio Matias), C.I.A., C.S.A., Deltite, Department H, Dreadknight, F.B.I., Hydra, Justin Hammer, Leoninus, Prince Hassim of Bagmom, Moroboshi International, S.H.I.E.L.D., the Sphinx, the Trinational Commission, United Nations, U.S. Department of Defense.
Enemies: Accutech, Alpha Flight, Avengers, Black Panther, Blue Shield, Box (Madison Jeffries), Captain America, Changelings, Chtylok, Dan Davis, Devil Dinosaur and Moon Boy, Diamond Lil, Hiram Dobbs, Dragon Man, Force, Forge, Sid Franken, Griffin, Guardian, Hulk, Hyperion (zombie clone), Iron Man, Ka-Zar, Dr. Miles Lipton, Lockjaw, Looter, Man-of-War, Joy Mercado, Project: PEGASUS, Raptor (Hazlett), Red Skull, Red Wolf, Repulsor, James Rhodes, Raymond Royton (Dept. of Justice task force member), Savage Land Mutates (Amphibius, Barbarus, Brainchild, Lorelei), Shanna, She-Hulk, Silver Sable, Melissa Sparrow Bear, Spider-Man (Peter Parker), Spider-Man (Ben Reilly), Stegron, Tony Stark, Sub-Mariner, Tonga and the Fall People, Nick Trask and the Silver Serpent, Det. Connor Trevane, U.S. Department of Justice, Vision, Wakanda, Will O' the Wisp, Windshear, Woodgod, Zabu.
of Operations: One Roxxon Plaza, Corporate Headquarters,
Manhattan, New York City, New York, USA;
Roxxon Nucleonics, midtown Manhattan, New York City, New York;
Roxxon Research Complex, Long Island, New York City, New York;
Cybernetics Division Headquarters, New York City, New York;
Roxxon Research Facility, Rye, New York;
Roxxon Industrial Research Complex, New Jersey;
Roxxon Tower, Washington D.C.;
Roxxon Branch Warehouse #23, Lynchburg, Virginia;
Privately owned airfield, Dallas, Texas;
Geothermal Exploration Facility, Isolation, New Mexico;
Roxxon Energy Research Facility (Roxxon House), near Denver, Colorado;
The Roxxon Monolith, San Francisco, corporate headquarters for Roxxon's Northwest Division;
Roxxon Enclave, headquarters for Roxxon's West Coast Division, located south of Los Angeles;
Blackguard research facility, Washington state (near Canadian border);
Roxxon Research Facility, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada;
Floating biological research laboratory, off the northern English coast;
Roxxon Research Facility, Belfast, Ireland;
Roxxon International Research, Tokyo;
Various oil drilling facilities, locations include Alaska, Lemuria, floating facilities in the Pacific Ocean, and a submerged drilling platform near undersea city of Hydropolis;
Various oil and natural gas refineries, locations include Washington State, Los Angeles, and Queens;
Varous mining facilities, including an open pit mine near Castle Rock, Montana and coal mining on Columbia's Magdalena River;
An unrevealed number of "Star Well" orbital satellites (Star Well I has been destroyed)
formerly Super-Human Research Facility, Bolivia, now shut down;
formerly underground synthesoid research facility, New York City, now destroyed;
formerly underground research complex, Temple Corners, Virginia, now destroyed;
formerly Vibranium mining facility in the North Atlantic, now destroyed
First Appearance: Captain America I#180 (December, 1974)
(Midnight Sons Unlimited#9/1) - During a live radio broadcast commercial during World War II, three women sang a short jingle: "Top off your tank with Roxxon, and give your engine a glow! Now try to keep your socks on, you're drivin' with get-up 'n' go!"
(All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9) - By the 1940s, the Roxxon Oil Company had become a major northeastern United States supplier, with a sterling reputation in its industry.
(All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9) - Republic Oil was incorporated by crooked Texas oil speculator J.T. Jones. J.T. built Republic into a valuable corporation, and upon his death, control of the company passed to his son, Hugh Jones.
(Iron Man: The Iron Age#1 - BTS) - Executives of Republic Oil and Natural Gas arranged the deaths of Maria and Howard Stark, and the two (with their chauffeur) were killed when their car's brakes failed.
(All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9) - Roxxon Oil was purchased by Republic Oil and Natural Gas.
(Fury I#1 (fb)) - Roxxon Oil was one of several contractors who contributed to the early funding of S.H.I.E.L.D. However, they also were involved with HYDRA, helping them to smuggle weapons in Roxxon tankers. Their dealings were discovered by Rick Stoner, the first director of S.H.I.E.L.D., but Stoner was killed before he could report.
(Iron Man: The Iron Age#1) - Republic Oil and Natural Gas executive Simon Krieger, with the approval of President Hugh Jones and executives Jonas Hale and Gamelin, hired the Saboteur to sabotage Stark Enterprise's new SK-1, in hopes the failure will let them take over the company. The Saboteur was defeated by Iron Man, and the attempt failed.
(Iron Man: The Iron Age#2) - Simon Krieger sent the Dogs of War to invade Stark Enterprises and attempt to hire Iron Man away from Stark. Believing Iron Man out of the picture, Krieger (disguised as Tony Stark) and the Dogs of War invaded a multi-national business meeting on the S.H.I.E.L.D. Heli-carrier, and broadcast a televised ransom demand as Stark in an attempt to discredit him. Iron Man intervened, and Krieger and the Dogs of War were captured and arrested. To protect himself, Jones had Krieger killed in jail. Republic declared a hands-off policy on Stark and proceeded with their reorganization plans, adapting the name of one of their subsidiaries to become the Roxxon Energy Corporation.
(Ms. Marvel II#33) - Covert Air Force Special Operations agent Michael Rossi acted as a Roxxon representative during negotiations about a trans-Afghanistan pipeline.
(Avengers I#144 (fb)) - The Brand Corporation was officially purchased by Roxxon some time after the Beast left Brand and after the exposure of the Secret Empire's infestation of Brand devalued it.
(Alpha Flight I#92 (fb)) - In cooperation with Department H and the Canadian government, Roxxon's facility in Sault Ste. Marie developed a communications chip for the use of Alpha Flight. Suspicious, James Hudson (then Vindicator, later Guardian) broke into Roxxon's files (unknowingly allowed to do so by the project's lead scientist Cary Albertson and Department H's Major Chasen) and found file 211-34: "Weapon Alpha Bio-Chip Devel." (also seen were the names for files "211-33: Bio-Synthesis Project 1-A" and "211-35: Nth Projector Research Notes and opinions"). The Bio-Chip file revealed that Roxxon intended the chip to be used to allow not just communication, but also tracking, sensory manipulation, and even control of the superhumans it was implanted in. Department H's General Jeremy Clarke ordered Hudson, as Vindicator, to break into Roxxon and destroy the chip, which Hudson believed he succeeded in doing. However, Clarke and Albertson covertly were working together- in reality, both Department H and Roxxon maintained copies of the chip and its research.
(Captain America I#180) - Viper, leading a Serpent Squad consisting of herself, Princess Python, the Eel, and the Cobra, kidnapped Hugh Jones, President of Roxxon Oil. They were opposed by Captain America, in an early appearance in his Nomad identity, but escaped with Jones when Nomad tripped on his cape.
(Captain America I#181) - Viper and her partner, Warlord Krang of Atlantis, placed the Serpent Crown on Hugh Jones' head. Under the Crown's control, Jones ordered all Roxxon employees to cooperate with Viper and Krang. They traveled to a Pacific Ocean Roxxon drilling facility, which was drilling oil from the sunken continent of Lemuria. The Viper, Serpent Squad, and Krang were stopped by Nomad (Captain America) and the Sub-Mariner. The Crown was removed from Jones' head, and Viper escaped with the crown in hand. Apparently free of the crown, Hugh Jones reversed the Viper's earlier commands. Roxxon's elite security forces berated Nomad for his interference, telling him they had the situation under control.
(Avengers I#147 (fb)/ Web of Spider-Man Annual#5/6 (fb)/ Marvel Two-in-One#66 (fb)) - As anyone wearing the Serpent Crown for a good length of time permanently becomes its slave, Hugh Jones remained under the control of the Serpent Crown. However, Jones served the Crown and Set voluntarily, craving the power it granted. He immediately assigned Roxxon employees to locate and recover the lost Serpent Crown, and once they did, he began wearing it invisibly.
(Captain America I#185) - Hugh Jones, from a limo with the license plate ROXXON, informed Captain America of the location of the Red Skull's Washington D.C. headquarters. Aware of Captain America's presumably secret former identity as Nomad, Jones said he now considers his debt to Captain America (for freeing him from the Serpent Squad) paid.
(Captain America I#186) - When S.H.I.E.L.D. agents Peggy Carter and Gabe Jones called for back-up while investigating the Red Skull, the transmission was blocked by Roxxon agents and a disguised Roxxon assault team attacked the Red Skull's headquarters, enabling Captain America, the Falcon, and the S.H.I.E.L.D. agents to free themselves.
(Web of Spider-Man Annual#5/6) - Hugh Jones used the Serpent Crown to establish contact with the Serpent Crown wearers of the Squadron Supreme's universe, notably businessman Gregory Hungerford Gideon and U.S. President Nelson Rockefeller. He exchanged knowledge and technology to the benefit of all parties.
(Avengers I#141) - Captain America, investigating Roxxon President Hugh Jones, followed some Brand security forces from One Roxxon Plaza to where they attacked the Beast. The Avengers investigated Brand's Queens facility, where Roxxon President Hugh Jones was in attendance with the Squadron Supreme.
(Avengers I#144 / All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9) - Hugh Jones removed both the Avengers and the Squadron Supreme from Brand by using Nth Projector technology to deport them all to the Squadron Supreme's world.
(Avengers I#147) - At Brand, Hugh Jones was contacted by the Squadron Supreme universe's U.S. President Nelson Rockefeller, the wearer of that universe's Serpent Crown, after the Avengers stole that crown.
(Avengers I#149) - The Avengers returned to Brand from the Squadron Supreme's world, bearing that world's Serpent Crown with them. Hugh Jones was captured by the Avengers, but no charges were filed and Jones was soon released.
(Thor Annual#6) - In midtown Manhattan, a half-dozen terrorists took over the offices of Roxxon Nucleonics, seizing control of an active nucear reactor. Thor intervened, defeating the terrorists, and he and the reactor then simply vanished for ten hours (taken to the future by Korvac) until both returned unharmed.
(Howard the Duck Annual#1) - Roxxon executive Mr. Petrie and his assistant met with Prince Hassim of Bagmom in hopes of convincing his father, the Caliph of Bagmom, to assign Roxxon oil exploration rights in Bagmom's territory. Rebels, loosely cooperating with Howard the Duck, exposed Hassim's plan and he fled across the border, ending Roxxon's arrangements with him.
(Web of Spider-Man#22 (fb) - BTS) - Due to interference from the American government, Roxxon had to temporarily close down most of its interests in the Middle East.
(Iron Man I#142 (fb)) - Arthur Dearborn designed Star Well I for Roxxon. Star Well I was a space station designed for gathering and storing solar radiation, and transmitting the energy to Earth in the form of microwaves. Construction was begun, but a necessary component of the station's construction was Vibranium, which lead directly to several covert attempts by Roxxon to gain this.
(Iron Man I#142 (fb)) - In order to make the staffing of his Star Well I station affordable. Arthur Dearborn voluntarily submitted to experimental alteration at the hands of Roxxon's subsidiary, the Brand Corporation. They changed him into Sunturion.
(Iron Man I#121 - BTS) - Roxxon forces located an Atlantic Ocean island which possessed an apparently natural quantity of Vibranium. Disguising themselves as U.S. military, Roxxon troops took control of the island and begin to setup mining operations, dumping toxic wastes in the waters below and attempting to remove the island's sole inhabitant, Hiram Dobbs, in the process.
(Iron Man I#120) - Roxxon troops masquerading as the U.S. Navy rescued the survivors of an airplane crash caused by the Sub-Mariner's interference in their operation. They misled Iron Man into opposing the Sub-Mariner for them.
(Iron Man I#121) - Iron Man and the Sub-Mariner united to drive Roxxon from the island. "Captain" Hale disclosed the nature of Roxxon's plans to Bethany Cabe and Jim Rhodes before destroying the island with planted explosives. Despite the "confession," the destruction left the real U.S. military with insufficient evidence to prove Roxxon was involved.
(Marvel Team-Up Annual#2) - After Roxxon opened an open pit mine near the isolated prairie town of Castle Rock, Montana, the town boomed from a cow town into a fair-sized city, and had political and social problems in coping with the growth.
(Marvel Team-Up I#87 - BTS) - Through an agent named Walter, Roxxon hired metals marketer Thomas Agar to frame the Black Panther and to discredit Wakanda.
(Marvel Team-Up I#87) - Hellrazor masqueraded as Black Panther and "kidnapped" Thomas Agar, all at Agar's direction. Spider-Man and the real Black Panther found Hellrazor and exposed the faked kidnapping. Though Agar was arrested, Rxxon's involvement was not revealed, and Roxxon achieved their goal of darkening the Panther and Wakanda's reputations, and disrupting Wakanda's economic negotiations as well. President Gamelin privately pronounced it as a "good piece of business" in their ongoing attempts to get ahold of Wakanda's vibranium.
(Marvel Two-in-One#58) - Roxxon executives discussed the failed effort to use elements of the Nth Command to destroy Project: PEGASUS as part of their overall plan to "gain a world energy monopoly by eradicating any effective private or governmental competition."
(Savage She-Hulk#5) - At a California press conference, Mr. Mason, a Vice-President at Roxxon, announced the theft of large quantities of oil from Roxxon's Los Angeles refineries through unknown means, but the public believed this to be a corporate scam. The She-Hulk found mobster Nick Trask to have been using the giant burrowing "Silver Serpent" to commit the thefts. She defeated Trask and the Silver Serpent and exposed the truth, restoring Roxxon's good name.
(Marvel Two-in-One#65 (fb) - BTS) - In order to locate the Serpent Crown which had come from the Squadron Supreme's world by the Avengers and subsequently dropped in the Pacific Ocean by the Vision, Roxxon created and outfitted a new Serpent Squad (Anaconda, Black Mamba, Death Adder, Sidewinder). Roxxon moved a floating oil derrick to the California coast, and set the Serpent Squad to hunt the Crown. However, the Squad's detonation of explosive devices during the search would later damage the Roxxon derrick.
(Marvel Two-in-One#64) - The Thing, Stingray, and Dr. Henry Croft stumbled across the Roxxon floating oil derrick off the California coast and investigated. When an underwater explosion damaged the derrick the Thing attempted to help, but the Roxxon workers were ordered to attack him rather than allow unauthorized personnel on board. Stingray, investigating below, was attacked by the Serpent Squad and knocked out.
(Marvel Two-in-One#65) - The Serpent Squad used Stingray to force the Thing's surrender, but he soon escaped and went after the Squad with Triton and Stingray both. They battled the Squad but Sidewinder recovered the Serpent Crown and escaped in an air-sub.
(Marvel Two-in-One#66) - Sidewinder delivered the Serpnt Crown to Roxxon President Hugh Jones at a Washington D.C. high rise penthouse apartment. Jones revealed to Sidewinder that he already wore one Serpent Crown and placed the second atop the first (they then merged into one); Sidewinder then departed. Joined by the Scarlet Witch, the Thing and Stingray tracked the Crown to D.C., where Jones had used the Crowns to place the entire city under his control. The Thing eventually wrenched the Serpent Crown from Jones head, and Washington D.C. was restored.
(Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Deluxe Edition#11) - Following his traumatic separation from the Crown, Hugh Jones was driven insane and was hospitalized. He was replaced as President of Roxxon by Vice President of Foreign Operations John T. Gamelin.
(Captain America I#251) - The Queen of Egypt, a Roxxon super-tanker carrying liquefied natural gas, was hijacked by Mr Hyde and Batroc. Pierce Benedict, Roxxon's Director of Sea-Going Operations, was contacted by the pair, and he agreed to have a ransom of a billion dollars in gold delivered to the pair in the custody of Captain America.
(Captain America I#252) - When Mr. Hyde decided to destroy the Queen of Egypt by crashing it into New York City even after receiving the ransom, Batroc arranged Captain America's escape and the two stopped Hyde. Batroc escaped with Roxxon's gold, but Captain America tracked him down and retrieved Roxxon's money in the end.
(Iron Man I#140) - An accident on board Star Well I resulted in a beam of microwave radiation almost ten miles in diameter killing over 200 people in Allantown, Iowa.
(Iron Man I#142) - When S.H.I.E.L.D. requisitioned aid from Stark International for an investigation into the Allantown disaster, Senator Chad Mountebank was sent to strong-arm Tony Stark into denying S.H.I.E.L.D. access. When that failed, Roxxon executive Hale ordered Stark International's Head of Communications Michael Thomas (secretly a Roxxon sleeper / corporate spy) to disrupt S.H.I.E.L.D.'s investigation, which he did using a stolen prototype Jupiter Lander Vehicle.
(Iron Man I#143) - Iron Man found Star Well I. In defending it from meteors, he met Arthur Dearborn, whom he learned was Sunturion, and Dearborn related the history of Star Well I and Roxxon's involvement in it. After Iron Man and Sunturion cooperated to defend the station from a Russian attack, Roxxon executive Jonas Hale learned of Iron Man's involvement and ordered the stations destruction, which Iron Man prevented. When iron Man attempted to dismantle the station, Sunturion stopped him, and their battle inadvertently sent the station plummeting out of orbit.
(Iron Man I#143) - Unable to save Star Well I, Iron Man and Sunturion cooperated to cause the station to plummet harmlessly into the Gulf of Mexico. Unfortunately, Sunturion was apparently disintegrated in the effort. Roxxon managed to cover up the Allantown, Iowa disaster as an Anthrax epidemic, even hosting a celebrity golf tournament to benefit the Allantown families.
(Iron Man I#144) - Stark International requested a Senate investigation into Roxxon, alleging ties to the Allantown "Anthrax incident." Later, at an electronics engineering convention in Dallas, Texas, Jonas Hale of Roxxon interrupted a meeting between Stark and Augustine Cross of CTE, slapping a "Roxxon: Your Energy Friend" button on Stark (who quickly threw it away). The following night, after Iron Man had battled the Raiders (and lost), Hale encountered Stark at a cocktail party and told him he was "not sorry" to see Iron Man embarassed.
(Iron Man I#145) - Tony Stark's photographs of Star Well I turned out to have been fogged by a boost of radioactivity he later received, thus eliminating the last real evidence tying Roxxon to the Allantown incident.
(Marvel Two-in-One I#73) - After Quasar and the Thing invade an Nthe Command base beneath New York and were briefly shunted to an extradimensional oil facility, project director Bennett Pittman revealed to the Thing that Roxxon was behind the Nth Command and their earlier attempts to destroy Project: PEGASUS. Though the extradimensional and New York facilities were both destroyed, Roxxon's involvement could not be proven.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#230) - While battling the Juggernaut, Spider-Man confiscated a Roxxon Oil truck from its driver and drove the gasoline-filled vehicle right at the Juggernaut, but the resulting explosion did not harm the Juggernaut.
(Amazing Spider-Man Annual I#16) - South American generalissimo Ernesto Ramirez sought to fund the work of Professor Andre LeClare, who had devised a process to draw energy form other dimensions. Not wanted to see his work used for weaponry, LeClare declined, and Ramirez hired LeClare's former assistant, Felipe Picaro, to continue the work in a lab located on Roxxon Oil Tower #25 (then leased to Guarina Petrochemicals Ltd), in the Gulf of Mexico. LeClare and New Orleans harbor officer Monica Rambeau investigated and stopped the experiment, but not before Rambeau was transformed into Captain Marvel.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#235) - Raymond Royton, special investigator for the Department of Justice, revealed to three Daily Bugle executives and reporters (Jameson, Robertson, Leeds) that the DoJ had been conducting a long-term investigation into Roxxon (and subsidiary corporation Brand), and asked the Bugle to curtail its ongoing coverage of Brand for fear that it would harm Justice's case. The Bugle agreed.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#236) - Roxxon President Gamelin, acting on directives from Chairman of the Board D'Angelo, ordered the closure of Roxxon's Brand subsidiary, and promised a personal investigation into Brand President James Melvin's purported activities in creating superhumans. Needless to say, Gamelin had been aware of Brand's activities and even directly intervened to aid in damage control, ordering Roxxon subsidiary WYDY TV (New York City) to cease coverage of Melvin's kidnapping.
(All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9) - At some point in time, Roxxon President John T. Gamelin was replaced by a Deltite controlled Deltan-model LMD. Gamelin slowly became less active in the company, and the Board took greater control over day-to-day operations.
(Alpha Flight I#12 (fb)) - Jerry Jaxon presented Roxxon Chairman August D'Angelo with news of the identity of Alpha Flight's Guardian, and Jaxon was hired as an Associate Vice-President and given Delphine Courtney as an assistant. Jaxon began planning the creation of Omega Flight and his eventual revenge against Guardian.
(Alpha Flight I#6) - Roxxon offered James MacDonald Hudson, whom they now knew to be Alpha Flight's Guardian, a position in their New York division.
(Moon Knight I#36) - Roxxon agreed to match a donation from Steven Grant to a major New York museum for a new Egyptian wing.
(Alpha Flight I#11) - Jerry Jaxon and Delphine Courtney gathered Omega Flight in a New York office, and brought James Hudson (Guardian) and his wife Heather there.
(Alpha Flight I#12) - Jaxon, in the armor of Omega Flight's Box, attempted to destroy Guardian, but was apparently killed in the fight. Guardian was also publicly believed dead for some time as well.
(Iron Man Annual#9 (fb)) - Roxxon reintegrated Sunturion.
(Web of Spider-Man I#17 (fb)) - Representatives of Roxxon contacted Jonathan Darque, a.k.a. Magma, and placed him in charge of a secret underground research complex near Temple Corners, Virginia. Darque discovered a savant child in the town, Seth Hanks, and through the child developed a system of broadcast power "bombs."
(Web of Spider-Man I#16) - Seth Hanks, with his mother Charla, escaped the Temple Corners underground facility, but were quickly recaptured. Joy Mercado and Peter Parker of Now Magazine came to town investigating stories of labor unrest, met Charla, and were taken to the complex, where they learned of Roxxon and Magma's involvement.
(Web of Spider-Man I#17) - Spider-Man opposed Magma/Darque, and their battle inadvertently flooded the underground complex with lava, apparently destroying it.
(Web of Spider-Man I#19) - Now Magazine's Joy Mercado noted that all evidence of Roxxon's involvement with the Temple Corners facility was destroyed in the facility. Her story blocked, Joy decided to pursue Roxxon activities in Great Britain.
(Web of Spider-Man I#22) - Ian Forbes, head of Roxxon's Belfast (Ireland) facility, spearheaded the development of the AK-X AntiPersonnel Particle Beam Cannon. When the Pentagon terminated their production contract (citing the tendency of the cannon to explode), Roxxon's Board of Directors demanded Forbes find a market for the weapon. Forbes targeted the United Kingdom, and created counterfeit Irish terrorists, the Black Hoods, to spark British retaliation against the Irish while employing British Secret Agent 003 (Duncan O'Neill, a Roxxon agent within MI-5) to feed false information to the British government. Spider-Man (with the aid of reporter Joy Mercado) stopped the scheme, and Forbes and O'Neill were killed when their male supervisor at Roxxon destroyed their helicopter.
(Alpha Flight I#90 (fb) ) - A Roxxon Oil research ship found the comatose body of James MacDonald Hudson (Alpha Flight's Guardian) floating in the Pacific Ocean just off the British Columbia coast, interfaced into some very alien technology. Roxxon officials brought the body to the Denver Roxxon Energy Research Facility, where, under the direction of Facility Director Samuel Higgins, they would spend the next two years studying it, keeping MacDonald comatose. Higgins would argue continually throughout this time that Hudson was a potential threat and needed terminated, but was overruled by Roxxon executives who saw great potential profit in studying the alien technologies.
(Avengers I#279) - Captain Marvel (Monica Rambeau) returned to Roxxon Oil Tower #25, where she had received her powers, and found it abandoned.
(Iron Man I#220 (fb) - BTS) - Mr. Tappan of Roxxon's Los Angeles based West Coast division hired the Ghost as a freelance operative to destroy Accutech Enterprises so that Roxxon could more easily acquire that company's Beta Generator device.
(Iron Man I#219) - When Tony Stark tried to buy Accutech, Iron Man became involved in stopping the Ghost's Roxxon-sponsored attempts to destroy Accutech. Iron Man initially stopped the Ghost, but the Ghost did escape.
(Iron Man I#220) - Mr. Tappan's superior, Carrington Pax, fired the Ghost (with full pay) as a result of his involvement with Iron Man. The Ghost angrily announced his intent to finish the job anyway, and so Pax hired Spymaster to kill the Ghost. When Iron Man, the Ghost, and Spymaster all intersected at Accutech, the Ghost killed Spymaster, and Accutech survived.
(Iron Man I#221) - The Ghost again attacked Accutech, but Iron Man was prepared and the Ghost was apparently killed. Roxxon's involvement remained unexposed.
(Iron Man Annual#9) - Jonas Hale and Douglas Bravner ordered Roxxon operative Stratosfire to Costa Gravas, Central America, to destroy a refining facility there. Statosfire's friend and fellow Roxxon employee, Babs Bendix, grew worried about her friend and talked to Iron Man, at which point Hale ordered security operative Carson to kill Ms. Bendix. Learning of her friend's death, Stratosfire became unbalanced, seriously damaging the Roxxon Monolith, destroying a nuclear power plant, and attacking a U.S. military base in San Diego. Stopped at the military base by Iron Man and Sunturion, Stratosfire attempted to attach a NASA space shuttle, but Iron Man and Sunturion talked her out of it. Stratosfire was apparently destroyed when Hale activated a "Zed Control," a remote-control self-destruct device. In the presence of an eavesdropping Hale, Sunturion claimed Stratosfire's explosion cured him of being Sunturion.
(Nick Fury Vs. S.H.I.E.L.D.#1 (fb) - BTS) - At some point, Nick Fury placed his sleeper agent Jack Rollins in an undercover position at the Roxxon Industrial Research Complex in New Jersey. Unknown to Fury, Roxxon had made an alliance with the Deltite, a Hydra-created sentient LMD who had usurped control of S.H.I.E.L.D. Because S.H.I.E.L.D. lacked the financial resources needed for the Deltite plans, it had made an alliance with Roxxon, using Project: Delta to capture S.H.I.E.L.D. agents and replace them with LMDs.
(Nick Fury Vs. S.H.I.E.L.D.#1) - Rollins summoned Fury to the New Jersey Roxxon plant and led him to a section devoted to Project: Delta, which contained a vast amount of classified S.H.I.E.L.D. data. They also witnessed a ceremony in the plant performed by Encoders, LMDs who followed the Deltite. When Fury alerted S.H.I.E.L.D.'s council to what he had discovered, they sent an LMD of Jimmy Woo to capture Rollins and replace him with an LMD.
(Nick Fury Vs. S.H.I.E.L.D.#4) - Acting on behalf of the Deltite, Roxxon summoned prominent businessmen from companies including Sony, BMW, ATT and Imperial Chemical Industries to a conference in Colorado. By this time, Fury was being hunted by the Deltite's agents, and Dum-Dum Dugan and Gabe Jones decided to investigate the Roxxon Industrial Research Complex.
(Nick Fury Vs. S.H.I.E.L.D.#5) - After the businessmen had gathered at Roxxon House in Colorado, an LMD of Laura Brown gassed the entire room and turned them over to Encoders so that they could be replaced in Project: Delta. As Jones and Dugan began their investigation, their craft was shot down by the plant by anti-aircraft technology that belonged to S.H.I.E.L.D. An Encoder confronted Jones and Dugan outside of the complex, until all of the S.H.I.E.L.D. agents and LMDs at the complex were gathered up in a vessel to the S.H.I.E.L.D. satellite. The Encoder then perished.
(Nick Fury Vs. S.H.I.E.L.D.#6 - BTS), All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9) - The Deltite's Deltan-model LMDs were destroyed, among them the LMD of Roxxon President John T. Gamelin.
(All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9) - With Gamelin assumed dead, Calvin Halderman became President of Roxxon.
(Marvel Fanfare I#43/2) - Fleeing bank robbers took a school child hostage and hid out in a Roxxon liquid gas refinery in Queens. The Human Torch (Johnny Storm) captured the criminals with no harm to the facility.
(Iron Man I#244) - Operating from the Roxxon Monolith in San Francisco (misidentified here as being in Los Angeles), Roxxon executive Jonas Hale took advantage of Tony Stark's temporary crippling to order several attacks on Stark Enterprises so as to destroy a Sonic Scanner SE was building. Roxxon bombed Stark subsidiary Barstow Electronics to destroy one part, then sent the Fixer to break into another subsidiary, Accutech Research and Development to destroy another piece (where he was unsuccessfully opposed by Force, in black Iron Man armor, and James Rhodes). Force and Rhodes stopped the Fixer when he attacked Stark Enterprises in an attempt to destroy the third piece, and Iron Man defeated the Fixer on a second attempt.
(Marvel Comics Presents I#28/4) - Toxic waste in Roxxon-labeled barrels was responsible for mutating a fish in lagoons in the Blue Area of Earth's Moon. Triton destroyed the mutated fish.
(Iron Man I#248) - Roxxon executive Arthur Dearborn testified as a character witness for Tony Stark at the trial of one of Stark's former girlfriends.
(Marvel Super-Heroes III#1/1 (fb)) - Paul Hazlett, a Roxxon employee, invented an anti-gravity generator. Roxxon claimed the device as its own property, and used the device to create the superhuman Killer Shrike.
(Marvel Super-Heroes III#1/1) - Paul Hazlett sued Roxxon to regain rights to the anti-gravity generator he invented while in Roxxon's employ. During the ensuing legal battle, Hazlett nearly went broke and decided to steal his designs back from Roxxon. Hazlett then used the device to create his own superhuman identity as the criminal Raptor.
(Namor I#3) - After being attacked by the Griffin, the Sub-Mariner wrongly assumed that Roxxon had sent it after him and, after taming the Griffin, burst into a boardroom meeting at One Roxxon Plaza, where he demanded answers as to why the Griffin had been sent. As Roxxon had nothing to do with it, they were unable to satisfy Namor's interrogation, so he abandoned the Griffin in the boardroom.
(Marvel Comics Presents I#62/4) - Mr. Burr of Roxxon attended a failed test of the new Deathlok (John Kelly) cyborg.
(Deathlok I#1) - Cybertek, Inc., an applied cybernetics division of Roxxon Oil, continued working on the Deathlok cyborg. Roxxon was also completing a dam in the Federated Republic of Estrella (in South America), and a reworked Deathlok (Michael Collins) was unleashed on the guerillas opposing it, killing them.
(Deathlok I#2) - Clayton Burr, Roxxon's Vice President of International Development, was interrogated by SHIELD's Nick Fury about Deathlok, which had since gone missing. Burr subsequently demanded that Harlan Ryker (division head of Cybertek, a Roxxon subdivision) and Cybertek recover it.
(Deathlok I#3) - After Deathlok destroyed the Estrellan dam, Roxxon pulled its interests out of the over-budget project. The Estrellan government subsequently collapsed.
(Deathlok II#1 (fb) - BTS) - Seeking to limit their culpability in the Cybertek/Deathlok fiasco, Roxxon closed Cybertek, sold or reassigned its physical assets, and fired or reassigned employees. Jim Dworman was placed in charge of shutting Cybertek down.
(Deathlok II#7 & Deathlok II#11 (fb) - BTS) - Most of Cybertek's equipment ended up in A.I.M. hands, though other companies, including Magnum Munitions, acquired some.
(Marvel Super-Heroes III#3/5) - Firebolt sabotaged various experiments at Project: PEGASUS, including Dr. Jeannine O'Connell and Dr. Henri Sorel's study of Blue Shield's ability to absorb thermal radiation. Exposed, Firebolt claimed to have been in the employ of Roxxon Oil Corporation, but was apparently then incinerated while fighting Blue Shield.
(Alpha Flight I#87) - Colin Ashworth Hume, a.k.a. Windshear, was remanded by Roxxon's Super Human Division from their United Kingdom branch to their Denver facility. The body of James MacDonald Hudson (Alpha Flight's Guardian) had been stored in the basements below the Roxxon Energy Research Facility of Denver, Colorado (headed by Samuel Higgins, Facility Coordinator), and under Hudson's unconscious direction the facility was undergoing an attack of uncontrollable technological growths. When Windshear can't stop Hudson, Roxxon called in Alpha Flight's Box, Madison Jeffries, to attempt to control the machinery, though Roxxon didn't reveal to either Windshear or Box who/what was causing this. Madison was expelled from the facility by Hudson, but not before determining that there is a man in the machinery, controlling the process.
(Alpha Flight I#88 / Alpha Flight I#90 (fb)) - With the mysterious mechanical force now having access to myriad external connections, Roxxon's U.S. government ties (in the person of Valerie Cooper) mandated the addition of the mutant technological genius Forge to the problem-solving team. When Samuel Higgins covertly ordered Roxxon technicians to unplug Hudson, the facility exploded (Hudson's programming acting to defend itself), and the team identified James MacDonald Hudson (formerly Alpha Flight's Guardian) as the man in the machinery.
(Alpha Flight I#89) - The team of Forge, Windshear, Box, and Diamond Lil restored James MacDonald Hudson to full awareness and sanity, eliminating further danger to Roxxon's now mostly-demolished facility.
(Alpha Flight I#90) - Now freed, Hudson left Roxxon's ruined facility, and Windshear quit Roxxon and followed. Samuel Higgins promised himself eventual vengeance against Hudson for destroying the facility, and also planned to retrieve Windshear's Roxxon-created armor.
(Thunderbolts I#43 (fb)) - Following Windshear's departure from Roxxon, the corporation maintained large quantities of his "hard air" molecules on hand, and began working on ways to both maintain them and to create more themselves.
(Avengers Spotlight#40 - BTS) - Alexander Lipton, son of artificial intelligence expert Miles Lipton, worked for Roxxon's Research and Development. He found out about "some super-top-secret weapons thing," and was killed by a Roxxon employee.
(Avengers Spotlight#40) - Dr. Miles Lipton's attempts to investigate his son's murder by breaking into Roxxon's secure files resulted in Roxxon's tracing his activities. Agents of Roxxon took Lipton and a comatose Vision to Roxxon's New York Cybernetics Division Headquarters, where they ordered Lipton to reprogram the Vision to serve them (all in the name of corporate advancement- the person in charge of the operation was hoping to be made "Vice-President of Extra-Legal Activities"). Lipton instead reprogrammed the Vision with the engrams of his deceased son Alex, and the Vision defeated the kidnappers, in the process accomplishing Dr. Lipton's goal of bringing his son's killers to justice. The killer was not named here, though his two "thugs" were identified as Moyer and Blair.
(Marvel Comics Presents I#75/3 (fb)) - Roxxon employed a team of scientists on a floating research station off the English coast. The scientists were conducting biological research. The station was attacked, and everyone killed excepting two Russian scientists, Mischa and Yuri, who escape.
(Marvel Comics Presents I#75/3) - Excalibur's Shadowcat and Meggan rescued Mischa and Yuri. They were pursued by an Eastern European assassin known as Cypress, whom they believed to be in the employ of Roxxon. Cypress mortally wounded Yuri, who then shot his friend Mischa so that the secret of their research would die with them. Cypress was rendered unconscious.
(Marvel Comics Presents I#76/4) - Leoninus of the Changelings allied himself with Dr. Malachi Oz of Roxxon in capturing other Changelings to use as laboratory experiments. Just as Dr. Oz was about to begin his work, he was attacked by Woodgod, who defeated Oz's men and set the captured Changelings free.
(Iron Man Annual#12) - Larry Curtiss, a Roxxon employee, acquired a duplicate of the Trapster's suit, and used it to attack Jim Rhodes in an attempt to steal some discs containing Tony Stark inventions. Curtiss' mission was unsanctioned by Roxxon, and was his attempt to move up in the corporate world: he was aiming for the position of Head of Security. Curtiss' boss discovered the attempt and interfered, ordering Curtiss to kill Rhodes, but Curtiss fled instead. Curtiss' boss and a female agent, Missy, escaped as well.
(Amazing Spider-Man Annual#25) - At a demonstration on the Empire State University football field, Roxxon Executive V.P. Jonas Hale displayed Nuform, Roxxon's newly developed synthetic vibranium. However, the synthetic vibranium had serious flaws, flaws which Hale chose to keep secret while marketing Nuform, trusting in Roxxon to later develop a permanent "fix." Unaware of these flaws, the Kingpin hired the Ghost to steal the secret of Nuform, but the Ghost was opposed by Spider-Man and the Black Panther. Roxxon executive Arthur Dearborn interposed himself into the fight to save the Black Panther, and was restored to his Sunturion form, though mentally unstable.
(Spectacular Spider-Man Annual#11) - Iron Man joined the battle against Sunturion, and the Ghost fled. Dearborn quickly regained his self-control, and began investigating Nuform. Hale continued publicizing Nufrom, but ordered all data and computers removed from ESU and taken to a more secure facility. That night, the Ghost and Ultron broke into ESU, but drove each other off. Ultron also sent an army of robots to attack Roxxon's Long Island complex, which were opposed by Black Panther and Spider-Man. The attack led Roxxon to evacuate the facility, and the evacuation put Iron Man into conflict with Sunturion.
(Web of Spider-Man Annual#7) - The Black Panther confronted Hale at One Roxxon Plaza, leaving the nervous Hale to call the "Expediency Department" and order the Panther's death. Disguised Roxxon agents attacked the Panther, who escaped unharmed with Spider-Man's help. Meanwhile, Ultron faked a military takeover of Roxxon's ESU lab, but Dearborn quickly saw through the ruse and Iron Man and Sunturion opposed Ultron. Dearborn realized that the stabilization of the Nuform had failed and the four heroes allied to prevent further damage from the Nuform, while Ultron escaped. Iron Man transported the Nufrom to the Earth's core, destroying it, and Hale reassured Arthur Dearborn that it was a "rogue cell of corporate malcontents" who'd withheld the data which created the problem in the first place.
(Deathlok II#1) - A Warwolf, one of Cybertek's shut-down assets, broke out of Roxxon Branch Warehouse #23 in Lynchburg, VA, after being activated by former Cybertek executive Harlan Ryker. Deathlok soon destroyed it.
(X-Factor I#71) - As a group of protestors rallied against Roxxon outside of their Washington tower, a bomb threat was announced. Fortunately, Quicksilver was at the scene, and managed to find and disarm the bomb before it could go off.
(Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D. II#35) - Roxxon was revealed to have invested, through an unidentified female operative, a substantial sum of money in an attempt sponsored by Angar the Screamer (disguising himself as The Voice) to capture the S.H.I.E.L.D. Helicarrier. Their goals were primarily to steal S.H.I.E.L.D.'s files, and secondarily to destroy S.H.I.E.L.D. Angar's hand-picked team of Overrider, Mad Dog, Ivory, Smokescream, and Assault and Battery were defeated by Nick Fury, G.W. Bridge, and a team of S.H.I.E.L.D. Super-Agents. Roxxon's involvement remained unexposed.
(Marvel Comics Presents I#107/4) - Saboteurs and assassins were sent to pose as eco-terrorists and destroy a Roxxon pipeline crossing a Canadian and an American Blackfeet Indian Reservation, as well as to assassinate one of the primary Indian negotiators, Mellisa Sparrow Bear. Stopped by Red Wolf, the saboteurs claimed Roxxon wanted to disrupt negotiations so they could act as the party which would settle them back down, allowing them to peacefully and cheaply conclude their pipeline, preventing any costly rerouting.
(Iron Man I#281) - With Tony Stark seriously ill, Justin Hammer and representatives of five other organizations (Roxxon, Hydra, Moroboshi International, the Trinational Commission, and one other) met and plotted the downfall of Stark Enterprises.
(Iron Man I#282) - Justin Hammer sent the Masters of Silence after Stark. After Stark(as Iron Man) turned the Masters, Hammer requested assistance in the form of operatives from the other five. Roxxon's unnamed representative was revealed to be a heavy-set brown-haired balding man with glasses.
(Iron Man I#283) - Hammer was financially crippled, which had always been the other five's intent. They chose to wait and watch Stark.
(All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9) - At their Bolivian facility, Roxxon scientists built the Repulsor armor.
(NFL SuperPro#12 (fb)) - Carlos Carago wore the Repulsor suit, a powered armor based on nucleic repulsion. Carago was employed by Antonio Matias of Brazilian Logging Enterprises (BLE, a Roxxon partner) to terrorize environmentalists. Brazilian soccer star Claudio Juarez and his fiancée Felicita Olivieri attempted to steal the armor; Felicita was killed in the attempt and Carlos became the new Repulsor.
(Daredevil I#307-309 / Nomad I#5) - In Las Vegas at the Secret Empire-owned Palantine "Oasis" Casino, industrialist Justin Hammer attending a meeting of crimelords intending to address the power vacuum recently caused by the Kingpin's absence. Also in attendance were Tombstone, Hammerhead, the Red Skull (Shmidt)'s agent Word, the Slug, Hydra's Fenris (and a bodyguard named Snakeskin), a Secret Empire delgation, a representative of the Yakuza-linked Tatsuo clan, and Jonin of the Hand. Hammer claimed to be representing Roxxon and other "legitimate" illegitimate enterprises. After internal struggles turned violent (and apparently before "heroes" Daredevil, Nomad, Terror, and the Punisher intervened, Hammer departed untouched. Whether Hammer was truly representing his business rival Roxxon or this was a lie on his part is unclear.
(NFL SuperPro#12) - Roxxon's deal with BLE was interrupted when Repulsor (Claudio Juarez), a Brazilian environmentalist vigilante, caused severe damage to the BLE's headquarters and hospitalized Matias. Repulsor then traveled to New York, where he interrupted a Triple-A baseball game between the Rye Metros and the Sarasota Panthers in Rye Stadium to attack several middle eastern businessmen who were in negotiations with Roxxon to sell oil rights, and who had also been involved with BLE. NFL SuperPro stopped Repulsor, who surrendered to the stadium authorities.
(Amazing Spider-Man Annual#26) - Jonas Hale of Roxxon was involved in the Sphinx's project to scientifically steal/duplicate the powers of young superhumans. Also involved were representatives from a number of corporations, including the Life Foundation, Justin Hammer, Stane International, the Brand Corporation, and others. The hope was to develop a facility capable of building a lucrative genetic enhancement market.
(Spectacular Spider-Man Annual#12 / Web of Spider-Man Annual#8) - Hale was present in the boardroom as the Sphinx's plans proceed.
(New Warriors Annual#2) - The New Warriors and Spider-Man defeated the Sphinx, ending Hale and Roxxon's involvement in his project.
(Deathlok II#17) - Clayton Burr, having been promoted from Vice President to President of International Relations at Roxxon, contacted Deathlok and pointed him to where several former Cybertek agents had set up a new cybernetics workshop in Paris.
(Deathlok II#21 (fb) - BTS) - As part of a double-cross, Burr hired the assassin Coldblood to kill Harlan Ryker, who was working with the Paris team that Burr had pointed Deathlok towards.
(Namor I#33) - The board of trustees of the Oracle corporation decided to sell Oracle's land-holdings in Alaska to Roxxon Oil.
(Deathlok II#19) - Clayton Burr was contacted by Harlan Ryker; each was using the other in attempting to gain control of Deathlok, though neither trusted the other.
(Deathlok II#21) - Harlan Ryker was arrested and took Burr down with him by supplying evidence to S.H.I.E.L.D; Clayton Burr was arrested for conspiracy to commit treason against the United States.
(Iron Man I#290) - With Stark believed dead, the quintet who had previously employed the Masters of Silence now sought the removal of James Rhodes as CEO of Stark Enterprises, and backed Morgan Stark's effort to gain control of the company. They plotted Rhodes' assassination, using military battledroids provided by an unrevealed "patron."
(Iron Man I#291) - The battledroids were destroyed.
(Iron Man I#292) - After the quintet's Osamu Morobishi arranged the apparent death of Morgan Stark (to prevent his betraying the group), the mysterious and unrevealed "patron" killed Morobishi, who had been the only one to know the patron's identity.
(Deathlok II#26) - Following Clayton Burr's arrest, Deathlok's wife Tracy Collins found her Cybertek/Roxxon benefits/insurance cancelled; Burr also sent the Hobgoblin to attack Deathlok and his family.
(Spider-Man, Punisher, Sabretooth: Designer Genes) - Brandon Chambers, an executive in Roxxon's New York corporate headquarters, contracted his brother Phillip to continue for Roxxon the genetics research he'd been conducting for Canada's Department K program. From a secret laboratory located under the Bronx Zoo, Phillip developed an unreliable cell/meld process of genetic splicing, whereby animal characteristics could be grafted onto humans. When their third brother, Mitchell, contracted cancer, Phillip spliced rat, bear, coyote, and wolf DNA into Mitchell, curing the cancer but leaving him more animal than man, and Phillip was forced to control him through electrical implants. Phillip told Brandon that Mitchell had died, and the pair then decided to secretly sell the "Designer Genes" process to the highest bidder. Mitchell soon escaped and rampaged, drawing the attention of Spider-Man, Sabretooth, and the Punisher to the zoo. Moving the lab to One Roxxon Plaza, Phillip continued his work there before Sabretooth ultimately found and killed him. The still mutated Mitchell was placed in the care of an unidentified cancer research facility, and Brandon was indicted for his crimes.
(Night Thrasher I#10) - In the African nation of Nadua, Roxxon made a deal with the Keeyana tribespeople to prevent finishing the construction of a Stark Enterprises-financed dam - the dam would flood a valley containing concealed petroleum reserves. Stark was initially badmouthed for the ecological damage the dam would cause, but Iron Man and Night Thrasher uncovered Roxxon's involvement and exposed the reserves. The Naduan government rejected both Stark's and Roxxon's proposals.
(Namor the Sub-Mariner I#50) - Roxxon's Jack Gamelin and another Roxxon executive met with Walter Newell at the construction site for what would become the undersea city of Hydropolis. Roxxon agreed to invest in the project, but the presence (and rudeness) of Prince Namor made Gamelin reconsider Roxxon's participation.
(Iron Man I#306) - After Tony Stark announced new Stark Enterprises public policies designed to increase corporate responsibility, executives in a Roxxon boardroom contemplated "having to do something about Stark" if these policies started impacting major corporations like Roxxon.
(Fantastic Four Unlimited I#11/2) - Armed operatives of Roxxon Oil fought along with British researchers and the United States Marine Corps against Portuguese forces and Man-of-War at the island of Atlantis.
(Two Gun Kid: Sunset Riders#2) - Roxxon published a promotional magazine advertisement intended to reduce concern over an accident involving the oil tanker Velasquez, which had resulted in "millions of tons" of oil being spilled off the Alaskan coast.
(Namor the Sub-Mariner I#54) - In financing the undersea city of Hydropolis, a deal was finalized to allow Roxxon undersea exploration rights nearby. When the Sub-Mariner learned of the arrangement he attacked the scientists, but he was stopped by Diane Newell, in Stingray's costume.
(Marvel Comics Presents#173/3) - While battling Lava Men, Stingray detonated a canister of Roxxon's coolant KOOL underwater, which froze the Lava Men.
(Iron Man I#316) - Members of the Roxxon Oil Company came to visit Mycroft to contract him out to eliminate Stark Enterprises. Mycroft agreed to take the assignment before it was even offered to him.
(Spider-Man Unlimited I#22 (fb) - BTS) - In partnership with Colonel Gunderson of the Defense Department and the Black Tarantula, Roxxon built a Bolivian research facility designed for the creation and augmentation of super-powered agents. The facility was headed by Curtis Henshaw, of Roxxon R&D.
(Spider-Man Unlimited I#22 (fb) - BTS) - The Quartermaster re-designed Scorpion's gear and the Scorpion was treated at Roxxon's Bolivian research facility.
(Spider-Man Unlimited I#13) - Roxxon attempted an infiltration and take-over of Rand/Meachum in hopes of using their genetics facilities as part of their Bolivian augmentation research. The Quartermaster acted as a corporate spy within Rand/Meachum for Roxxon, but fell to his death in a vat of solvent. The Scorpion kidnapped J. Jonah Jameson to try to deter investigating journalists but was defeated by Spider-Man (Reilly), Power Man, and Iron Fist. Though presumed dead, the Scorpion was revived and retrieved by Roxxon operatives. (This all took place in this issue, but Roxxon's involvement/purpose was not revealed until Spider-Man Unlimited I#22-fb.)
(Sensational Spider-Man I#13) - In partnership with the United Nations and S.H.I.E.L.D., Roxxon took a lead role in establishing a facility publicly stated to be reducing the thawing that the Savage Land was then undergoing (presumably due to a hole in the ozone layer), thawing which threatened the survival of the Savage Land as a whole. However, Roxxon board members controlling the project were actually having the scientist in charge, Dr. Gerald Roth, increase the melt rate, with the intent of flooding the Savage Land so as to remove restrictions which prevented oil drilling.
(Sensational Spider-Man I#14) - Spider-Man (in the Savage Land as part of press coverage), Ka-Zar, and Shanna discovered that Roxxon was using one of its Star Well satellites to increase the melt rate rather than decrease it, and that the "refrigeration facilities" would function as oil rigs once the Savage Land is submerged. Roth ordered the termination of Ka-Zar.
(Sensational Spider-Man I#15) - Spider-Man, Ka-Zar, Shanna, Stegron, and the Hulk exposed Roth's efforts, and S.H.I.E.L.D. Commander Chris Townsend arrested him. When Roxxon refuted Roth and stated their intent to provide (manufactured) evidence that he was acting without corporate sanction, Roth attempted to destroy the Savage Land but was stopped. Roth escaped, but was killed and eaten by Chtylok the Che-k'n Kau.
(Spider-Man Unlimited I#16) - Linden Laswell (ex-CIA, ex-special forces), a Roxxon Oil executive, arranged a deal with Bram Velsing (the Dreadknight): Roxxon supplied Velsing with cash and high-tech weaponry needed to take over Latveria (while Dr. Doom was presumed dead post-Onslaught), and Velsing in return gave Roxxon unlimited mining rights in Latveria. Daily Bugle reporter Betty Brant uncovered the Roxxon tie, but was captured by Velsing before being freed by Spider-Man and Silver Sable. Laswell was captured by Sable and exposed, and Roxxon publicly claimed he had been fired several years before. Five shadowy figures in the Roxxon boardroom decided to put "the Latverian project" on indefinite hold.
(Conspiracy#2) - Edward Harrison, retired U.S. Colonel and conspiracy theorist, informed a Daily Bugle reporter named Ewing that a secret government organization known as Control was behind the creation of most of the world's superhumans. He claimed one member of Control, General Cecil B. Slinkard, had been peddling classified technology to numerous corporations, including Roxxon.
(Spectacular Spider-Man II#235) - At a Roxxon Research Facility in Rye, NY, Dr. Jonas Harrow implemented a plan by which he could create an army of synthetic soldiers, for which he intended to use Dragon Man as a template. Harrow used a device implanted into the Will O' the Wisp to control him and force him to burglarize the offices of Dr. Gregson Gilbert (Dragon Man's creator). The next night, at Harrow's command, Will O' the Wisp broke into a "mega-maximum security government installation" in the New Jersey Palisades known as Iron Rock. Warned by the Wisp, Spider-Man (Ben Reilly) also broke in, and freed Will O' the Wisp from Harrow's control, but not before the Wisp was forced to place Dragon Man under Harrow's control.
(Spectacular Spider-Man II#236) - Spider-Man and the Wisp battled Dragon Man, ultimately knocking him out. Knowing Harrow would recall him, they woke Dragon Man, and used him to gain entrance to Roxxon's Rye facility. There, the pair took out Harrow's systems, freed Dragon Man, and captured Harrow and his assistant Davis. Meanwhile the Looter stole several weapons from Roxxon.
(Captain America Annual 1999 - BTS) - Roxxon acquired Flag Smasher after he was dropped into icy waters and (according to Roxxon) brain-damaged, and began a mind control program on him using a variety experimental chemicals which unbalanced him, rendered him more controllable, and which altered the color of his skin to a grayish tone. The chemicals could alter personality, create mood swings, and alter immediate priorities.
(Captain America Annual 1999) - Flag-Smasher, Kenneth H. Bradley (retired security consultant for Brand) and two other people broke in to the United Nations, specifically the offices for the oil-rich breakaway Russian nation Trebekistan. After killing a security guard in the process, Bradley was caught and arrested. Kevin Stein, former V.P. under Melvin at Brand, told reporters that Bradley was once involved in covert operations. The "two other individuals" were killed by a drugged Flag-Smasher, the drugging initiated by Roxxon's Dr. Bob at the direct orders of Roxxon President Mr. Calvin Halderman. Flag-Smasher was sent to kill Bradley, but Captain Ameria intervened and saved him. Dan Davis and Sid Franken, two Daily Bugle reporters, investigate. Bradley, fearing for his life, claimed that they were conducting industrial espionage, looking at paperwork on oil rights, and that the killing was an accident. When the Bugle reported this, Roxxon sued the Bugle for libel. Bradley, meanwhile, was killed by a crooked guard, and the killing set up to look like a jail brawl between two prisoners. Halderman sent Flag-Smasher after Franken and Davis, but Captain America again intervened and captured Flag-Smasher. Using Flag-Smasher, the pair exposed Halderman's connection in the Daily Bugle. Halderman resigned as President of Roxxon, and was replaced by Don Kaminski.
(Spider-Man Unlimited I#22 (fb) - BTS) - The Department of Justice set up an official Task Force, headed by NYPD Detective Connor Trevane and including special investigator Raymond Royton, to investigate Roxxon.
(Spider-Man Unlimited I#22) - At a press conference at One Roxxon Plaza, Terence Gerard, a Roxxon executive, announced a joint operation with the NSC, CIA, and FBI whereby Roxxon's cutting edge "rehabilitation therapy" was used to reform super-villains into government agents. The announced subject was Mac Gargan, the Scorpion, who then stopped a bombing at the press conference, though the bomber was later learned to be an ex-Roxxon employee.
(Spider-Man Unlimited I#22) - Trevane's Department of Justice Task Force contacted Dr. Marla Madison, and arranged a public lecture in hopes this would draw out the Scorpion. As hoped, Madison (with her husband J. Jonah Jameson) were kidnapped by the Scorpion (with agents of the Black Tarantula) and taken to the Bolivian Roxxon facility to work there. The Task Force, with Spider-Man, tracked her to the facility and arrested the Scorpion, Roxxon's Curtis Henshaw, and Defense's Colonel Gunderson. Henshaw and Gunderson were indicted on a number of crimes.
(Avengers Annual 1999) - In San Francisco, for several months She-Hulk (Jennifer Walters) headed up a class action suit against Roxxon's off-shore waste disposal.
(Iron Man III#21) - A Roxxon refinery in the Pacific Northwest caught fire and burned. Iron Man and Warbird intervened, preventing a major environmental disaster, but the refinery suffered extreme damage when a liquefied natural gas tank exploded.
(Thunderbolts I#49-50 (fb) - BTS) - Working on a contract with the U.S. Government's Commission on Superhuman Activities, Roxxon's Denver Research Facility (under the control of Facility Coordinator Samuel Higgins, who had "climbed back up the corporate ladder after the Hudson fiasco") developed Omega-32, a chemical compound that could "unbind the cohesion of hard air molecules, allowing them to be transmitted through an electromagnetic data stream." Effectively, this could create a death-weapon, by which any individual could be killed from a distance.
(Thunderbolts I#39 (fb) - BTS) - Following the conclusion of Roxxon's work on Omega-32, the company violated its arrangement with the government and began working on creating its own supply of Omega-32.
(Thunderbolts I#35 (fb) - BTS) - Industrialist Justin Hammer employed a number of project spies within Roxxon's Denver facility in hopes of learning more about Omega-32.
(Thunderbolts I#34) - The Beetle, sent by the Commission on Superhuman Activities, broke into Roxxon and stole Roxxon's illicit Omega-32 cache, doing major damage to Facility Coordinator Samuel Higgins' plant.
(Thunderbolts I#34) - Roxxon's construction of a Geothermal Exploration Facility in Isolation, New Mexico was halted, at least temporarily, when a fight between the Hulk and the Thunderbolts destroyed the construction site.
(Thunderbolts I#35) - Roberta "Bobbie" Haggert, a Roxxon scientist, smuggled files on Omega-32 past security guard Jake to reporter Gayle Rodgers. Justin Hammer's spies were unable to duplicate/recreate enough information on Omega-32 to allow him to create his own.
(Thunderbolts I#36) - Bobbie Haggert was assassinated inside Roxxon's Denver facility by Nomad/Scourge, holographically disguised as Samuel Higgins. Higgins' alibi was airtight enough that there is never any doubt that he was not actually involved.
(Thunderbolts I#39) - Henry Peter Gyrich of the Commission on Superhuman Activities visited Roxxon's Denver facility, informed them that he was aware of their violation of their contract, and ordered them to purge all research on Omega-32. So far as Gyrich is aware, Roxxon did so.
(X-Men II#112) - Roxxon built weaponry was used by rebel forces in the Genoshan fight against Magneto's rule. One identified weapon was a "Roxxon Hot Cell," which "targets a specific bio-signature and doesn't stop."
(Magneto: Dark Seduction#2) - Roxxon was revealed to have given unspecified assistance to Magneto's mutant government in establishing control of the island nation of Genosha.
(Magneto: Dark Seduction#4) - Magneto found Roxxon technology which "allowed Fabian Cortez to use his mutant powers to accelerate Acolyte mercenaries," and discovered the Roxxon origin of the advanced weaponry used by Genoshan rebel forces in Carrion Cove.
(The Order#2) - As part of an attempt to take control of the world, the Silver Surfer and the Sub-Mariner appeared at a Roxxon oil field in Alaska and demanded that they permanently cease drilling, threatening to incinerate the facility (and all present) if they didn't stop.
(Thing & She-Hulk: The Long Night#1) - Well beneath the New York sewers, Dr. Jonas Harrow led an investigation into Dragon Man as part of an attempt to create synthezoids for Roxxon. He was assisted by Chief Compton; other technicians included Delvecchio, Gordon, and Chief Wyngard. A vampire tribe located beneath the facility created a coincidental explosion which freed Dragon Man. Roxxon security forces including Grist, Kelly, Lewis, and Schroeder faced the vampires with only Grist escaping, while others armed with a synaptic disruptor pursued Dragon Man until they encountered She-Hulk and the Thing. Compton ordered the evacuation of the facility when faced with its inevitable exposure.
(She-Hulk I#2 (fb)) - Dan Jermain, a safety inspector for Roxxon Oil, was installing safety signs at his plant when a loose container fell on him and knocked him into a vat of hard atomic water. As a result, Jermain was transformed into the superhumanly powerful Danger Man.
(She-Hulk I#2) - Finding his powers to have ruined his life, Danger Man approached the law firm of Goodman, Lieber, Kurtzberg and Holliway, and received the aid of Jennifer Walters in an attempted lawsuit. When Jennifer met with Roxxon's lawyers, they maintained that Jermain hadn't suffered at all, having become larger, stronger and more powerful. When Jennifer told them that the pitcher of water on the table came from the same plant, the lawyers fought each other over it, hoping to become powerful like him, but Jennifer had tricked them. Jennifer ultimately won her case by arguing that Jermain had ceased to exist when he was transformed into Danger Man, and thus sued Roxxon for Jermain's death.
(Cable/Deadpool#7) - Deadpool, operating on behalf of the X-Men, invaded Roxxon International Research in Tokyo, and stole a component of a Chronal Vacuum Filter, a device the X-Men wished to employ against Cable. Deadpool was unsuccessfully opposed by Chinese agent "The Cat" (Shen Kuei), as Roxxon was cooperating with the Chinese government to defend the device.
(G.L.A.#2) - Part-time Roxxon security agent Douglas Taggert (the Grasshopper) was assigned to protect lead researcher Cindy Shelton's New York laboratory. In the employ of Maelstrom, Batroc, Machete and Zaran successfully broke into Roxxon despite the interference of the GLA, stealing unidentified technical components and killing Grasshopper in the process.
(G.L.A.#3) - The equipment stolen by Batroc et al was identified as the Atomic Inverter X-99 prototype.
(Captain America IV#4) - Russian businessman Aleksander Lukin pulled up in front of One Roxxon Plaza with his associate Leon, intending to use the few drops of power remaining in a broken Cosmic Cube to assume control of the Roxxon Energy Corporation.
(Captain America IV#9) - Lukin's Kronas Corporation was revealed to have bought out Roxxon, making it a Kronas subsidiary. The American government was working with Lukin and Roxxon to develop an underwater pipeline from Madripoor.
(Captain America IV#12) - Lukin used his now-repowered Cube to absorb nine more corporate subsidiaries into Kronas.
(GLX-Mas Special#1) - Former Roxxon Corporation security guard Neil became the new Grasshopper. He wore the suit for the first time on Christmas eve and successfully stopped Killer Shrike from stealing Project Z. After a short conversation with his Dr. Cindy Shelton, Neil inititiated the suit for maximum jump and left Earth's atmosphere. He died in outer space.
(Captain America IV#18) - At Roxxon's private airfield at Dallas, Texas, Crossbones and Sin killed Roxxon V.P. Mr. Clarkson and his assistant Kristy before stealing their plane. Roxxon was also noted as being the largest oil supplier in the western hemisphere.
(Wolverine IV#46) - Damage Control, under CEO Walter Declun, purchased Roxxon's Long Island offices for 5.3 million dollars for the site of a new corporate headquarters.
(Civil War: Fallen Son Daily Bugle Special #1) - Following the assassination of Captain America, Roxxon closed for a day of mourning, as did several other corporations. Company spkesman Patrick Nestor was reported in the Daily Bugle as saying "We at Roxxon feel a sense of obligation to our employees during this particularly difficult time. America has come to a halt to contemplate its loss."
(Thunderbolts II#113) - By phone, Jillian Woods (Shadowoman, Sepulchre) was contacted by Sikorski of Roxxon Blackridge (Roxxon's private security division). He wanted her to work as security for them at some middle-eastern holdings, and arranged to meet her in Phoenix on the following day.
(Thunderbolts II#115) - Following her inadvertent involvement in a battle between the Thunderbolts and the American Eagle and Steel Spider, Sepulchre crashed through the window into the legal office where Sikorski and as associate waited. She accepted their job offer, asking to leave the country as soon as possible.
(Marvel Comics Presents II#5/2) - Operating in the Savage Land from Roxxon's airborne headquarters two-delta, President Kaminski oversaw an attempt to harvest the Savage Land's Vibranium. After a team led by Killer Shrike was killed by Ka-Zar and Zabu, Kaminski ordered a retributional strike by Killer Shrike, Saboteur, Manticore, and a team of SHIELD Mandroids, but the strike was stopped by Ka-Zar, Shanna, and Moon Boy and Devil Dinosaur.
(Marvel Comics Presents II#6/2) - From the airborne headquarters, Kaminski and his ally Parnival Plunder ordered Killer Shrike, Saboteur, the Mandroids, and several ground forces to attack the Savage Land's defenders: Ka-Zar, Shanna, and Zabu, Devil Dinosaur and Moon Boy, Tonga and some of the Fall People, and Stegron and four of the Savage Land Mutates (Barbarus, Amphibius, Brainchild, Lorelei). Kaminski remotely piloted a robotic warrior in the fight.
(Marvel Comics Presents II#7/2) - Though the Savage Land's defenders had surrendered, Stegron abruptly raised an army of dead dinosaurs and attacked Roxxon's forces by surprise; Devil Dinosaur was able to bring down the airborne headquarters two-delta. Roxxon's forces were defeated, and Devil Dinosaur apparently ate President Kaminski.
(Tails of the Pet Avengers#1/4) - Roxxon recruited Mad Dog to steal a sample of Terrigen mist from the then moon-based city of Attilan using a wrist-mounted teleport matrix; the objective was to aid Roxxon further their gene-splicing techniques. Lockjaw pursued Mad Dog, teleporting into the Roxxon lab. Mad Dog was thrown against the teleport generator, which exploded, and Lockjaw left with Terrigen cannister.
(War Machine II#8 (fb) - BTS) - Roxxon received one part of Ultimo's CPU from US Agency for Alien Quarantine and Technology assistant director Reginald Gunderson. They stored it at their R&D Facility in Seattle, Washington and reverse engineered the Ultimo tech for diverse purposes.
(Dark Reign: New Nation#1/3) - Anton Aubuisson represented Roxxon in oil discussions with the Anunquit tribe in western Canadian artic. Using cyborg bears created from Ultimo tech and controlled with Sakaarian technology (provided by Eaglestar International), Aubuisson murdered the Anunquit representatives; War Machine (James Rhodes) blew up the pipeline and disrupted the bears control; the bears subsequently killed or maimed Aubuisson.
(Dark Reign Files I#1) - A list of some of the active Roxxon vice presidents included Terence Gerard, Jonas Hale, Brian Sagar, and Myrna Simpkins. The presidency was noted as still vacant.
(Wolverine: Weapon X I#1) - Roxxon coal mining near Columbia's Magdalena River was interrupted by raids conducted by locals. At about the same time, Maverick told Wolverine that Roxxon's Blackguard subsidiary has acquired Weapon X's old techniques for synthesizing Adamantium, and had put it to use. Wolverine raided a Washington state Blackguard facility (located near the Canadian border), finding the facility empty with signs of recent slaughter and Adamantium testing.
(Marvel Zombies Supreme#2) - In Kansas, the zombified clone of Hyperion attacked and destroyed a triple-trailered truck from Roxxon Oil and Inorganics carrying cattle infected with mad cow disease, a by-product of the toxic feed they had begun pushing to local ranchers.
(Punisher War Zone III#4 recap page) - The Daily Bugle reported that Roxxon stocks had slid.
(Avengers Assemble Annual#1) -
Comments: Created by Steve Engelhart (writer), Sal Buscema (pencils), Vincent Colletta (inks), Roy Thomas (editing).
Roxxon has a number of "cameo"
appearances, basically throwaways where a character goes by a Roxxon
filling station or somesuch. These certainly aren't worth recording in
the Roxxon history above, but I'll note them here. This is likely a far
from complete list:
(Ghost Rider I#36, June, 1979) - Ghost Rider battles a gang at a Roxxon service station in Denver, Colorado;
(Thor#303, January, 1981) - Thor flew past a Roxxon Oil Inc. construction site in Manhattan, knocking over a Roxxon sign on two fleeing thugs;
(Fantastic Four Annual#17, 1983) - Strzltski's Garage in King's Crossing, New York, was a Roxxon affiliate;
(Alpha Flight I#89, October, 1990) - Wolverine and Vindicator of Alpha Flight pass an abandoned Roxxon service station near Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.
(Marvel Super Heroes II#5/2, April, 1991) - The Thing used a Roxxon highway map, noting that "Arizona has as many Roxxon stations as it has sand dunes."
J. Steven York's novel Generation X: Genogoths (September, 2000) - Snow Valley, Massachusetts (home of the White Queen's branch of Xavier's school), has a Roxxon service station staffed by long-term employee Alvie Walton.
Adam-Troy Castro's novel Spider-Man: Secret of the Sinister Six (March, 2002) name drops Roxxon in a list of the world's major corporations on page 103.
The Roxxon corporation controlled a number of lesser corporations or organizations, most notably Brand (at least the original one), Cybertek, and the Nth Command. This entry focuses solely on those actions directly related to Roxxon itself- for information of activities by Roxxon subsidiaries, please see entries for those specific organizations. While those arguably could have been included here, it seemed to make more sense to separate them out to maintain a coherent flow. This page is large enough already...
Thunderbolts #113 introduced Roxxon Blackridge as the "private security" branch of the firm (possibly only for middle-eastern issues, possibly worldwide). In Wolverine: Weapon X I#1 the organization is refered to as Blackguard. The names almost certainly come from Blackwater, a firm then controversially deploying mercenary forces in Iraq.
The quote in the Roxxon's "Purpose" (above) is from Marvel Two-in-One#58, p31, pan8.
One company slogan, first used on a button that Hale slapped on Tony Stark in Iron Man I#145, later on a newscast in Amazing Spider-Man I#236, and then again seen on an ashtray in Spider-Man Unlimited I#16: "Roxxon: Your Energy Friend."
G.L.A.#3 identifies the corporate website as www.roxxon.com
In Amazing Spider-Man Annual#16 (1982), Captain Marvel (Rambeau) gains her powers at a Roxxon Oil Tower leased to a South American dictator who was studying extradimensional energy sources. While no evidence has been given that Roxxon was involved in this research, it seems unlikely that they wouldn't have been in some way...
The Roxxon Monolith is wrongly mentioned as being found in Los Angeles in Iron Man I#244 (July, 1989). Its correct location, as seen in Iron Man Annual 9 (1989), is in San Francisco. Roxxon's LA HQ (the Roxxon Enclave) is seen in Iron Man I#220 (July, 1987).
In X-Factor I#71, Roxxon's never-before-seen Washington D.C. skyscraper (the Roxxon Tower) was depicted as identical to One Roxxon Plaza. Either they have virtually identical buildings in both cities, or there was an artist's mix-up...
I included Cypress in the list of Roxxon employees, but we really have no evidence that he was actually a Roxxon employee. Mischa and Yuri's story of Roxxon's developing biological weapons and then destroying their own labs to get access to them really doesn't make a whole lot of sense: there has to be a smarter way to access their employees' work than killing them and blowing up their labs!
Apparently the mysterious "patron" from Iron Man I#290-292 has never been revealed; similarly, the Roxxon executive in Iron Man I#281-283 and #290-292 has never been named, though his face is seen clearly in #282. The quartet of allies left at the end of that appears to have disbanded, as they never were shown again.
Colonel Harrison's conspiracy theories about Control and General Slinkard selling technology to Roxxon have yet to be proven one way or another. There is some argument that the "Conspiracy" series took place out of Marvel continuity. I prefer to believe that the story itself took place in continuity, but that there is no clear evidence either way as to whether or not Control ever actually existed or was a figment of Harrison's imagination. Effectively, everything which actively happened in the story happened in the Marvel Universe, but everything which was merely one character telling another character something may or may not be true- we don't know if the character was truthful or lying and/or insane. Its one of those Marvel mysteries- whether you believe in Control or not is best left up to the reader.
Roxxon's Colorado lab is consistently mentioned as being in Denver or just outside Denver, save in Thunderbolts I#35, where Justin Hammer mentions it as being in Boulder. Given the weight of appearances saying Denver, we assume that Hammer made a mistake.
George Olshevsky speculated in the Official Marvel Index to the Fantastic Four#5 that "The Red Star Oil Company, thought to be a Communist front organization in this story (Fantastic Four I#80, November 1968), may actually be a subsidiary of Roxxon Oil or Roxxon Oil itself operating under an earlier name." So far as I can tell, the only basis for this supposition is that both are oil companies, and so until this is confirmed in continuity, we'll leave it here as a "maybe" in the comments.
Marvel: Year in Review 1989 includes an obviously fake Roxxon public relations magazine advertisement attempting to reduce concern over an Alaskan oil spill by the tanker Velasquez (obviously a take off on the March 23, 1989 Exxon Valdez accident). It goes so far as to show a beautiful Alaskan scene polluted with oil and a dead sea otter floating there - obviously not an actual advertisement that a sane executive or agency would publish! This was later reprinted in Two Gun Kid: Sunset Riders#2 as an introduction to "part four" of the story. Thanks to John McDonagh for pointing out this missed Roxxon appearance and its source.
Marvel: 1990 the Year in Review features an advertisement for "Roxxee-10," an acne cream being promoted by the New Warriors, and produced by Roxxon. An Eric Fein article on page 25 of this issue also noted that Roxxon Oil financed the building of a dam in the country of Estrella (see Deathlok I#1-3 for this story, thanks to John McDonagh for pointing this out). The All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9 placed the Roxxee-10 ad in continuity.
The All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9 (September, 2006) provided first names for several executives who had previously not had them revealed: Huck Petrie, Henry Mason, Mike Tappan.
In Spider-Man Team-Up Special (May, 2005), barrels of Roxxon's toxic waste are dumped on Monster Island, leading the Mole Man to invade the United Nations and demand that Roxxon clean it up. At the U.N., Eric Close, Senior Vice President of Pulic Relations for Roxxon Oil, attempts to get an endorsement from the Fantastic Four for Roxxon, and ultimately the FF "agrees" on live TV to co-sponsor a Roxxon project: Roxxon will set up a wildlife refuge for the Mole Man's monsters, pay for the damages to the U.N., and donate fourteen million dollars towards environmental clean-up. Marvel Adventures books are not generally considered to be in continuity, so I haven't included this above. If it is subsequently referenced in Marvel proper, it will be moved up into Roxxon's chronology and Eric Close will be added to the list of Roxxon employees.
JLX#1 (April, 1996) presents an Earth-Amalgam version of Roxxon. Still an energy company there under the same name, it had freighters torched by Will Magnus to frame the Aqua-Mariner.
Roxxon exists in Marvel's future "2099" universe, as Roxxon is included in a short list of the major corporations of that world in Spider-Man 2099 #1 (pg 20).
Roxxon exists in Marvel's Ultimate universe as well, first appearing there in Ultimate Spider-Man#72.
Roxxon apparently also appears in a background role in the Activision Spider-Man game (2001).
In the novel Mayhem in Manhattan (1978) by Len Wein & Marv Wolfman (pg. 61-62, 143-145, 159-161), aged Roxxon Chairman of the Board Madison Bell was one of eight oil executives at a meeting wherein a hidden voice attempted to extort from them all (having previously murdered an associate of one of the other executives). Later, with Dr. Octopus revealed as the extortionist and the executives all meeting on an oil platform, the wheelchair-bound Bell angrily refused Octopus; having spent a lifetime building Roxxon he was unwilling to knuckle under to Octopus. Dr. Octopus then detonated a sizable Roxxon operation in Oklahoma, but Spider-Man interrupted before Octopus could proceed further. During the fight Bell vanished; Dr. Octopus briefly masqueraded as him shortly thereafter and the oil platform they were on subsequently exploded, so presumably Bell was killed, either murdered by Dr. Octopus or blown up in the explosion.
In the novel Fantastic Four: Countdown to Chaos (1998) by Pierce Askegren, Roxxon plays a small role (pp. 5-8, 80-82, 263). Michael Brady, an executive with the Roxxon Chemical division, was replaced by a duplicate under control of the Thinker. He caused a chemical explosion in Madripoor which killed 15% of that island's population, and when fellow executive Reuben Kincaid intended to reveal Roxxon's complicity, Brady murdered Kincaid and made it look like a suicide, placing all the blame for the incident on Kincaid. Seven years later, at a Roxxon Oil Media Center in Texas, Brady announced Roxxon's takeover of Acme Atomics. Very shortly thereafter, the Fantastic Four freed Brady and returned him to his old life, quietly removing the duplicate; Roxxon was not made aware of the substitution. Somewhere prior to that, Roxxon had also taken over a company known as Encyclographics before looting its assets and closing it down. As there is no evidence that these events take place in the 616 universe, this has not been included in the history above. If it is subsequently referenced in Marvel proper, it will be moved up into Roxxon's chronology and Michael Brady and Reuben Kincaid will be added to the list of Roxxon employees.
In the juvenile novel Iron Man: Steel Terror (1996) by Dean Wesley Smith, Roxxon's Long Island Research Complex had continued work on (and apparently perfected) Nuform, dropping the name and simply referring to it as "synthetic Vibranium." In the employ of Ultron, TESS-One assaulted the facility on Christmas Eve (while it was sparsely staffed), killing at least one guard before making off with the synthetic Vibranium. The guard's surviving partner, Steve, notified his superiors, the police, and the Avengers. When the called-in executives refused to tell the Avengers (Vision, Iron Man, Crystal, Quicksilver, Black Widow, Hercules, Pym) what had been stolen, Hercules threw him into the air to coerce cooperation; Iron Man saved the executive, who then told the Avengers everything. Ultron was later discovered to be operating out of an abandoned Brand research facility in Antarctica (presumably this would be the Brand which had been a Roxxon subsidiary); the base would subsequently be seriously damaged when the Avengers defeated Ultron and TESS-One there. During the course of the evening, Iron Man and the Vision ended up defending a Brand nuclear research facility, located just outside New York City, from an assault by TESS-One, trying to steal fissionable materials. To protect those materials, Iron Man had the scientists manually hide small portions around the Brand facility, at great risk to their own health. Presumably this New York area Brand base would be associated with the second Brand Corporation, the one which presumably has no affiliation with Roxxon. This novel has not been included in the history above as many novels do not take place in the 616 universe. If it is subsequently referenced in Marvel proper, it will be moved up into Roxxon's chronology and Steve will be added to the list of Roxxon employees.Thanks to John McDonagh for pointing out this omission.
In the novel Iron Man: Operation A.I.M. (1996) by Greg Cox (pg. 128-129), an adaptoid posing as Deathlok (Collins) misleads War Machine at Mt. Wundagore by falsely claiming that he was following up on a Roxxon-AIM connection.
In the novel Spider-Man: Venom's Wrath (1998) by Keith R.A. DeCandido and Jose R Nieto (pgs. 113 & 314), Daily Bugle reporter Vreni Byrne publishes an article about a Roxxon/Acme merger.
In the novel X-Men and Spider-Man: Time's Arrow Book Two, The Present (August, 1998) by Tom DeFalco and Adam-Troy Castro (pg. 12), a dimension-traveling Spider-Man is in Central Park and notes that the Roxxon Corporate Headquarters is, in that dimension (Earth-98072), across the street from where it is in his home dimension. It should be noted that in the third book in that trilogy (Book Three, The Future), Earth-98072 is destroyed through Kang's machinations.
In the novel X-Men: Law of the Jungle (March, 1998) by Dave Smeds (pg. 39), Ka-Zar cites Roxxon's efforts to flood the Savage Land (Sensational Spider-Man I#13) and notes that Roxxon's lawyers were able to convince the courts that those were the work of a conveniently deceased former employee, and that Roxxon itself was not responsible.
Thanks to "Vincent180975" for pointing out the missed Jonas Hale appearance in Iron Man I#145, Markus Raymond for adding the GLX-Mas Special and Fantastic Four Unlimited I#11, Jeff Christiansen for pointing out the mention in Avengers Annual 1999, and John McDonagh for pointing out the mention in MTU Annual#2.
Complete aside- Jonas Hale seems to be named after, of all people, the Skipper from Gilligan's Island. The Skipper's name was Jonas Grumby, and he was played by Alan Hale, Jr. Given the name Jonas Hale, coupled with the fact the he was presenting himself as a Captain in his first appearance, it seems apparent. Why someone did this, I have no clue. I find myself wondering if Pierce Askegren was intentionally playing off this when he chose to name his two Roxxon characters Reuben Kincaid and Michael Brady, or if it was mere coincidence.
Profile by SQUEAK
Roxxon has no known connections to
August D'Angelo, Chairman of the Board
D'Angelo personally hired Jerry Jaxon
to work for Roxxon during his doomed attempt to gain revenge on Alpha
Flight's Guardian. When James Melvin of Brand's activities in
developing super-humans were exposed, D'Angelo worked with President
Gamelin to oversee the damage control and ordered the public closure of
all Brand plants.
D'Angelo kept a picture of Juliette D'Angelo (Julie Angel) on his desk, presumably she is a close relative.
--Alpha Flight I#12 (Alpha Flight I#12, Amazing Spider-Man I#235-236
John T. Gamelin, former President
John T. Gamelin was one of the top four Republic Oil and Natural Gas executives, head of their foreign operations division. He remained with the company as vice president of foreign operations as it became Roxxon Oil.
President of Roxxon after Hugh Jones was institutionalized. He oversaw
Roxxon's effort to discredit Wakanda by employing Hellrazor to
masquerade as the Black Panther and kidnap businessman Thomas Agar.
When James Melvin of Brand's activities in developing super-humans were
exposed, Gamelin oversaw the damage control and ordered the public
closure of all Brand plants at Chairman of the Board D'Angelo's
Gamelin was eventually kidnapped by agents of the Deltite and replaced by an LMD. When the Deltite recalled its LMDs, Gamelin was assumed dead and Roxxon's next President was Calvin Halderman.
Note: A Roxxon executive named Jack Gamelin has appeared (in Namor #50) since John T Gamelin's apparent death. It is unknown if the two are related (based on pictured ages, Jack could easily be John's son), but ages, names, and timing makes it clear that the two are not the same individual.
--Marvel Team-Up I#87 (Marvel Team-Up I#87, Iron Man: The Iron Age 1-2, Amazing Spider-Man I#235-236, All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9
Calvin Halderman, former President
years of service, Calvin Halderman became Roxxon President following
John T. Gamelin's disappearance, and as President he personally oversaw
a number of covert operations. It was his activity in controlling
Flag-Smasher via experimental chemicals and using him to break in to
the United Nations to get information on oil rights in Trebekistan that
ultimately led to his exposure in the Daily Bugle (thanks to a series
of articles by reporters Sid Franken and Dan Davis). Halderman resigned
in the face of a flurry of bad publicity and legal indictments, and was
immediately replaced as President by Don Kaminski.
Halderman has a wife and children.
--Captain America Annual 1999
Jonas Hale, Executive V.P., Head of Research
"Jonah" Hale was one of the top four Republic Oil and Natural Gas
executives, apparently head of their research division. He remained
with the company in a similar position as it became Roxxon Oil.
"Captain" Hale was in charge of the attempt to mine Vibranium from an Atlantic Ocean island. He masqueraded as a U.S. military Captain during the attempt, but when Iron Man and the Sub-Mariner intervened, he destroyed the island with explosives and escaped. A "Lieutenant" Grange, and someone known as Morgan were the only identified underlings of Hale's during this operation.
Hale ordered Michael Trudeau to disrupt Stark International's investigation of the Star Well I Allentown disaster. When Iron Man found Star Well I anyway, Hale ordered its destruction, but Iron Man disabled the destruct device.
Hale twice encountered Tony Stark at a Dallas, Texas engineering convention, first pulling CTE's Augustine Cross away from Stark (and slapping a Roxxon: Your Energy Friend" button on Tony while doing so), and then the following night telling Stark that he wasn't at all sorry to hear that Iron Man had recently been embarassed (in a fight with the Raiders).
Hale led the development of a new Sunturion project, which both resurrected Sunturion and led to the creation of a new Sunturion, code-named Stratosfire. After Hale ordered the death of one of Stratosfire's friends, she became unbalanced, and Hale was ultimately forced to destroy her using a remote control "Zed device."
When Tony Stark was crippled in a shooting, Hale attempted to take advantage of this by hiring the Fixer to destroy a Sonic Scanner that Stark had developed for locating oil deposits. The Fixer destroyed two-thirds of the project but failed to destroy the last third.
Hale headed up Roxxon's development of Nuform, an artifical vibranium. Though fully aware that no permanent solution existed to the product's destabilization, Hale chose to pursue marketing of it, trusting Roxxon to develop a final solution in the future.
Hale contributed Roxxon money and technology to the Sphinx's project to attempt to duplicate/steal the powers of young super-humans. Though the Sphinx was ultimately defeated by Spider-Man and the New Warriors, Roxxon presumably gathered very valuable genetic enhancement technology/knowledge during the process.
--Iron Man I#120 (Iron Man I#120-121, 142-143, 145, Iron Man Annual#9, Iron Man I#244, Iron Man: The Iron Age 1-2, Amazing Spider-Man Annual I#25, Spectacular Spider-Man Annual I#11, Amazing Spider-Man Annual I#26, Spectacular Spider-Man Annual I#12, Web of Spider-Man Annual I#8, New Warriors Annual I#2
Samuel Higgins, Facility Director, Denver
Director at Roxxon's Denver, Colorado Energy Research Facility, Higgins
was in charge when James MacDonald Hudson's comatose body, interlaced
with alien technology, was brought to his facility. For two years
Higgins supervised study of Hudson while simultaneously arguing that
the body was dangerous and need to be destroyed. When Hudson began to
awaken, Higgins arranged for Roxxon's Windshear, Alpha Flight's Box and
Diamond Lil, and the X-Men's Forge to try to shut down Hudson, and
inadvertently caused the destruction of the facility himself when he
attempted to have all power to Hudson killed.
Higgins "made his was back up the corporate ladder," and remained Facility Coordinator in Denver, overseeing ongoing work with Windshear's "hard air" and, in cooperation with the U.S. Government's Commission on Superhuman Activities, the creation of Omega-32, a system by which hard air molecules could be used to remotely kill people. Following Roxxon's contract with the government, Higgins oversaw continued secret work on Roxxon's own Omega-32, but this was ultimately stolen by the Beetle. Following this theft, the U.S. Government, in the person of Henry Gyrich, ordered Higgins to fully erase all Roxxon-held information on Omega-32. Whether Higgins erased all information or not, enough was erased that Gyrich believed that they had.
--Alpha Flight I#87 (Alpha Flight I#87-90, Thunderbolts I#34, 39
Don Kaminski, former President
Don Kaminski became President of Roxxon in the wake of the scandals that led to the resignation of Calvin Halderman. He was President while Kronas Corporation bought Roxxon. He later led an effort to harvest the Savage Land's Vibranium, where he was opposed by Ka-Zar and others; apparently Devil Dinosaur ate Kaminski after Roxxon's forces were defeated
--Captain America Annual 1999 (Marvel Comics Presents II#5/2-7/2
Simon Krieger, former Vice President, Republic Oil & Natural Gas
Working with Hugh Jones, J.T. Gamelin, and Jonas Hale, Krieger was in charge of "dirty tricks" at Republic. He hired the Saboteur and masqueraded as Tony Stark to lead the Dogs of War. Following his arrest, Hugh Jones had him killed in prison.
--Iron Man: The Iron Age#1 (Iron Man: The Iron Age#1-2
Carrington Pax, Executive, West Coast division
After having his immediate subordinate, Mike Tappan, hire the Ghost to destroy Accutech so that Roxxon could acquire its technology, Pax fired the Ghost with full pay after Iron Man became involved. When the Ghost attempted to finish the job anyway, Pax hired Spymaster to kill the Ghost. The Ghost would ultimately kill Spymaster instead, and Roxxon's attempt to acquire Accutech's technology failed.
--Iron Man I#220
Nuform is an unstable from of
synthetic vibranium. If
not treated properly, it decays into Antarctic vibranium, a substance
which causes metals to melt. It needs to be treated with special
microwaves, but they only delay the metamorphosis, not halt it, though
Roxxon had hopes for finding a permanent solution.
Nuform was developed on the campus of Empire State University as part of a Roxxon-sponsored grant. It was publicly announced as a successful Roxxon product by Executive V.P. Jonas Hale, prompting attempts by the Kingpin, the Ghost, and Ultron to steal it. However, microwave work at a nearby (and unrelated) lab caused the material to destabilize early, eventually causing the collapse of an ESU building. Working with the Black Panther, Spider-Man, and Roxxon's Sunturion, Iron Man destroyed all of Roxxon's ESU Nuform by transporting it to the Earth's core. However, Roxxon still retained the ability to manufacture more, should they choose to do so.
--Amazing Spider-Man Annual#25 (Amazing Spider-Man Annual#25, Spectacular Spider-Man Annual#11, Web of Spider-Man Annual#7, Iron Man: Steel Terror
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All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9, p35 (Roxxon Enclave)
All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9, p35 (Roxxon House)
Iron Man Annual I#9, pg8, p4 (Roxxon Monolith)
Spectacular Spider-Man Annual#11, p15, p2 (Roxxon Long Island)
Marvel Comics Presents II#5/2, p3, p3 (Airborne hq)
All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9, p35 (D'Angelo)
Amazing Spider-Man I#235, pg 16, p5 (Gamelin)
All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9, p35 (Halderman)
Iron Man I#121, pg10, p1 (Hale)
All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9, p35 (Higgins)
All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9, p35 (Kaminski)
All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9, p35 (Krieger)
All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9, p35 (Pax)
Captain America I#180-181 (December 1974-January, 1975) - Steve Englehart (writer), Sal Buscema (pencils), Vince Colletta (inks), Roy Thomas (editor)
Captain America I#185 (May, 1975) - Steve Englehart (writer), Sal Buscema & Frank Robbins (pencils), Frank Giacoia (inks), Len Wein (editor)
Captain America I#186 (June, 1975) - Steve Englehart & John Warner (writers), Frank Robbins (pencils), Mike Esposito (inks), Len Wein (editor)
Avengers I#141, 144, 147, 149 (November 1975; February, May, & July 1976)
Thor Annual I#6 (1977) - Len Wein (co-plotter/editor), Roger Stern (co-plotter/scripter), Sal Buscema (pencils), Klaus Janson (inks)
Howard the Duck Annual#1 (1977) - Steve Gerber (writer/editor), Val Mayerik (artist)
Iron Man I#120-121 (March-April 1979) - Bob Layton & David Michelinie (writers), John Romita Jr. (pencils), Bob Layton (inks), Roger Stern (editor)
Ghost Rider I#36 (June, 1979) - Michael Fleisher (writer), Don Perlin (artist), Roger Stern (editor)
Marvel Team-Up Annual I#2 (1979) - Chris Claremont (writer), Alan Kupperburg (pencils), Jack Abek (inks), Al Milgrom (editor)
Marvel Team-Up I#87 (November, 1979) - Steven Grant (writer), Gene Colan (pencils), Frank Springer (inks), Al Milgrom (editor)
Marvel Two-in-One I#58 (December, 1979) - Mark Gruenwald & Ralph Macchio (writers), George Perez (pencils), Gene Day (inks), Roger Stern (editor)
Savage She-Hulk#5 (June, 1980) - David Anthony Kraft (writer), Mike Vosburg (pencils), Chic Stone (inks), Mary Jo Duffy (editor)
Marvel Two-in-One I#64-65 (June-July, 1980) - Mark Gruenwald & Ralph Macchio (writers), George Perez (pencils), Gene Day (inks), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Marvel Two-in-One I#66 (August, 1980) - Mark Gruenwald, Ralph Macchio & Steven Grant (writers), Jerry Bingham (pencils), Gene Day (inks), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Captain America I#251-252 (November-December, 1980) - Roger Stern (writer), John Byrne (pencils), Joe Rubinstein (inks), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Iron Man I#140 (November, 1980) - Bob Layton & David Michelinie (writers), Bob Layton (artist), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Thor I#303 (January, 1981) - Doug Moench (writer), Rick Leonardi (pencils), Chic Stone (inks), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Iron Man I#142-146 (January-May, 1981) - Bob Layton & David Michelinie (writers), John Romita Jr. (pencils), Bob Layton (inks), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Marvel Two-in-One I#73 (March, 1981) - Ralph Macchio (writer), Ron Wilson (pencils), Chic Stone (inks), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#230 (July, 1982) - Roger Stern (writer), John Romita Jr. (pencils), Jim Mooney (inks), Tom DeFalco (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man Annual I#16 (1982) - Roger Stern (writer), John Romita Jr. (pencils), John Romita (inks), Tom DeFalco (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#236 (January, 1983) - Roger Stern (writer), John Romita Jr. (pencils), Frank Giacoia (inks), Tom DeFalco (editor)
Fantastic Four Annual I#17 (1983) - John Byrne (writer/artist), Carl Potts (editor)
Alpha Flight I#6-7 (January-February, 1984) - John Byrne (writer/artist), Linda Grant & Denny O'Neil (#7) (editor)
Moon Knight I#36 (March, 1984) - Alan Zelenetz (writer), Bo Hampton (artist), Denny O'Neil (editor)
Alpha Flight I#11-12 (June-July, 1984) - John Byrne (writer/artist), Denny O'Neil (editor)
Official Marvel Index to the Fantastic Four#5 (April 1986) - George Olshevsky (writer)
Web of Spider-Man I#16-17 (July-August, 1986) - David Michelinie (writer), Marc Silvestri (pencils), Kyle Baker (#16) & Vince Colletta (#17) (inks), Jim Owsley (editor)
Web of Spider-Man I#19 (October, 1986) - David Michelinie (writer), Marc Silvestri (pencils), Bob McLeod (inks), Jim Owsley (editor)
Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe II#11 (October 1986)
Web of Spider-Man I#22 (January, 1987) - Jim Shooter & Len Kaminski (writers), Marc Silvestri (pencils), Art Nichols (inks), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Avengers I#279 (May, 1987) - Roger Stern (writer), John Buscema (pencils), Tom Palmer (inks), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Iron Man I#219 (June, 1987) - Bob Layton & David Michelinie (writers), Bob Layton (artist), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Iron Man I#220-221 (July-August, 1987) - Bob Layton & David Michelinie (writers), Mark Bright (pencils), Bob Layton (inks), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Iron Man Annual#9 (1987) - David Michelinie (writer), Mark Bright (pencils), Bob Layton (inks)
Nick Fury Vs. S.H.I.E.L.D.#1 (June, 1988) - Bob Harras (writer), Paul Neary (pencils), Kim DeMulder (inks), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Nick Fury Vs. S.H.I.E.L.D.#4-5 (September-October, 1988) - Bob Harras (writer), Paul Neary (pencils), Kim DeMulder (inks), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Marvel Fanfare I#43 (April, 1989) - Bill Mantlo (writer), Greg Brooks (aritst), Al Milgrom (editor)
Iron Man I#244 (July, 1989) - David Michelinie & Bob Layton (writers), Bob Layton (pencils), Bob Layton, Chris Ivy, Don Hudson, Harry Candelario, Bob Downs, Dave Simons, Marc Siry, Gavis Curtis & James Brock (inks), Howard Mackie (editor)
Web of Spider-Man Annual I#5 (1989) - Peter Sanderson (writer), Mark Bagley (pencils), Keith Williams (inks), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Marvel Comics Presents I#28 (September, 1989) - Robert Campanella (writer), Javier Saltares (pencils), Jose Marzan (inks), Terry Kavanagh (editor)
Iron Man I#248 (November, 1989) - David Michelinie & Bob Layton (writers), Bob Layton (artist), Howard Mackie (editor)
Marvel Super-Heroes III#1 (May, 1990) - Robert Ingersoll (writer), Mike Gustovich (artist), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Namor I#3 (June, 1990) - John Byrne (writer/pencils), Bob Wiacek (inks), Terry Kavanagh (editor)
Marvel Comics Presents I#62 (November, 1990) - Dwayne McDuffie & Gregory Wright (writers), Jackson Guice (artist), Terry Kavanagh (editor)
Deathlok I#1-2 (July-August, 1990) - Dwayne McDuffie & Gregory Wright (writers), Jackson Guice (pencils), Scott Williams (inks), Bob Budiansky (editor)
Deathlok I#3 (September-October, 1990) - Dwayne McDuffie & Gregory Wright (writers), Denys Cowan (pencils), Rick Magyar (#3), Kyle Baker (#4) & Mike DeCarlo (#4) (inks), Bob Budiansky (editor)
Marvel Super-Heroes III#3 (September 1990) - Len Kaminski (writer), Greg Capullo (pencils), Tim Dzon (inks), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Alpha Flight I#87-90 (August-November 1990) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Mike Hernandez (pencils), Mike Manley (inks), Danny Fingeroth (editor)
Alpha Flight I#92 (January 1991) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Dan Reed (pencils), Richard Bennett (inks), Danny Fingeroth (editor)
Avengers Spotlight#40 (January, 1991) - Len Kaminski & Carrie Barre (writers), Gavin Curtis (pencils), Dan Panosian (inks), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Marvel Comics Presents I#75 (April, 1991) - Sue Flaxman (writer), Gavin Curtis (pencils), Chris Ivy (inks), Terry Kavanagh (editor)
Marvel Comics Presents I#76 (1991) - Robert Campanella (writer), Dave Cockrum (artist), Terry Kavanagh (editor)
Iron Man Annual#12 (1991) - Roy & Dann Thomas (writers), Tom Morgan (artist)
Amazing Spider-Man Annual I#25 (1991) - David Michelinie (writer), Guang Yap (pencils), Jeff Albrecht (inks), Danny Fingeroth (editor)
Spectacular Spider-Man Annual I#11 (1991) - David Michelinie (writer), Marie Severin (artist), Danny Fingeroth (editor)
Web of Spider-Man Annual I#7 (1991) - David Michelinie (writer), Guang Yap (pencils), Bud LaRosa (inks), Danny Fingeroth (editor)
Deathlok II#1 (July, 1991) - Dwayne McDuffie & Gregory Wright (writers), Denys Cowan (pencils), Mike Manley (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
X-Factor I#71 (October, 1991) - Peter David (writer), Larry Stroman (pencils), Al Milgrom (inks), Bob Harras (editor)
Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D. II#35 (May, 1992) - Scott Lobdell (writer), M.C. Wyman (pencils), Fred Fredericks & Don Hudson (inks)
Deathlok II#11 (May, 1992) - Dwayne McDuffie (writer), Denys Cowan (pencils), Mike Manley (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Marvel Comics Presents I#107 (1992) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), James Blackburn (pencils), Jonathan Holdredge & Chris Ivy (inks), Terry Kavanagh (editor)
Iron Man I#281-283 (June-August, 1992) - Len Kaminski (writer), Kevin Hopgood (pencils), Bob Wiacek (inks), Nel Yomtov (editor)
Daredevil I#307-309 (August-September, 1992) - D.G. Chichester (writer), Scott McDaniel (pencils), Bud LaRosa (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Nomad I#5 (September, 1992) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Pat Oliffe (pencils), Mark McKenna (inks), Glenn Herdling (editor)
NFL SuperPro#12 (September, 1992) - Evan Skolnick (writer), Jose Delbo (pencils), Don Hudson (inks), David Wohl (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man Annual I#26 (1992) - David Michelinie (writer), Scott McDaniel (pencils), Keith Williams (inks), Danny Fingeroth (editor)
Spectacular Spider-Man Annual I#12 (1992) - David Michelinie (writer), Scott McDaniel (pencils), Keith Williams (inks), Danny Fingeroth (editor)
Web of Spider-Man Annual#8 (1992) - David Michelinie (writer), Scott McDaniel (pencils), Keith Williams (inks), Danny Fingeroth (editor)
New Warriors Annual I#2 (1992) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Brandon Peterson (pencils), Keith Williams, Mark Stegbauer, Al Milgrom & Jimmy Palmiotti (inks), Danny Fingeroth (editor)
Deathlok II#17 (November, 1992) - Gregory Wright (writer), Walter McDaniel (pencils), Jimmy Palmiotti (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Deathlok II#19 (January, 1993) - Gregory Wright (writer), Walter McDaniel (pencils), Kim DeMulder (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Deathlok II#21 (March, 1993) - Gregory Wright (writer), Walter McDaniel (pencils), Greg Adams (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Iron Man I#290-292 (March-May, 1993) - Len Kaminski (writer), Kevin Hopgood (pencils), Steve Mitchell (inks), Nel Yomtov (editor)
Namor I#33 (December, 1992) - Bob Harras (writer), Jae Lee (artist), Terry Kavanagh (editor)
Spider-Man, Punisher, Sabretooth: Designer Genes (1993) - Terry Kavanagh (writer), Scott McDaniel (pencils), Keith Williams (inks), Danny Fingeroth (editor)
Deathlok II#26 (August, 1993) - Gregory Wright (writer), Kevin Kobasic (pencils), Bruce Patterson (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Fury I#1 (May, 1994) - Barry Dutter (writer), M.C. Wyman (pencils), Chris Ivy & Greg Adams (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Night Thrasher I#10 (May, 1994) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), David Boller & Frank Turner (pencils), Danny Bulanadi, Bruce Patterson & Frank Turner (inks), Rob Tokar (editor)
Namor the Sub-Mariner#50 (May, 1994) - Glenn Herdling (writer), Geof Isherwood (artist), Mike Rockwitz (editor)
Iron Man I#306 (July, 1994) - Len Kaminski (writer), Kevin Hopgood (pencils), Steve Mitchell (inks), Nelson Yomtov (editor)
Namor the Sub-Mariner#54 (September, 1994) - Glenn Herdling (writer), Geof Isherwood (artist), Mike Rockwitz (editor)
Marvel Comics Presents I#173/3 (February, 1995) - Mariano Nicieza (writer), Mark McKenna (art), Alex Sheikman (layout), Richard Ashford (editor)
Midnight Sons Unlimited#9 (May, 1995) - Dan Slott (writer), James W. Fry III (pencils), Andrew Pepoy (inks), Evan Skolnick (editor)
Iron Man I#316 (May, 1995) - Len Kaminski (writer), Tom Morgan (artist), Nel Yomtov (editor)
Fantastic Four Unlimited I#11 (September, 1995) - Glenn Herdling (writer), Herb Trimpe (penciler/inker), Nel Yomtov (editor)
Two Gun Kid: Sunset Riders#2 (December, 1995) - Fanian Nicieza (writer), Christian Gorney with Alex Maleev (penciler), Michael Halbeib (inker), Marc McLaurin (editor)
JLX#1 (April, 1996) - Gerard Jones & Mark Waid (writers), Howard Porter (pencils), John Dell (inks), Brian Augustyn & Ruben Diaz (editors)
Spectacular Spider-Man II#235-236 (June-July, 1996) - Todd DeZago (writer), Sal Buscema (pencils), John Stanisci (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Spider-Man Unlimited I#13 (August, 1996) - James Felder (writer), Joe Bennett (pencils), Randy Emberlin, Al Milgrom & Steve Montano (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Iron Man: Steel Terror (October, 1996) - Dean Wesley Smith (author)
Sensational Spider-Man I#13-15 (February-April, 1997) - Todd DeZago (writer), Mike Wieringo (pencils), Richard Case (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Spider-Man Unlimited I#16 (May, 1997) - Mark Bernardo (writer), Joe Bennett (pencils), Joe Pimentel & Tim Dzon (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Conspiracy#2 (February, 1998) - Dan Abnett (writer), Igor Kordey (artist), Kelly Corvese (editor)
Fantastic Four: Countdown to Chaos (1998) - Piere Askegren (author)
Iron Man: The Iron Age#1-2 (August-September, 1998) - Kurt Busiek & Richard Howell (#2) (writers), Patrick Zircher (pencils), Bob McLeod (inks), Bobbie Chase (editor)
Spider-Man Unlimited I#22 (November, 1998) - Mark Bernardo (writer), Mike Deodato Jr. (pencils), Joe Pimentel (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Captain America Annual 1999 (January, 1999) - Joe Casey (writer), Pablo Raimondi (pencils), Walden Wong (inks), Bobbie Chase (editor)
Avengers Annual 1999 (July, 1999) - John Francis Moore(writer), Leonardo Manco (pencils & inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Iron Man III#21 (October, 1999) - Kurt Busiek & Roger Stern (writers), Mark Bagley (pencils), Eric Cannon (inks), Bobbie Chase (editor)
Thunderbolts I#34-36 (January-March, 2000) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Mark Bagley (pencils), Scott Hanna (#34, 36) & Greg Adams (#35) (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
X-Men II#112 (May, 2001) - Scott Lobdell (writer), Leinil Francis Yu (pencils), Dexter Vines (inks), Mark Powers (editor)
Thunderbolts I#39 (June, 2000) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Mark Bagley (pencils), Scott Hanna (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Magneto: Dark Seduction#2 (July, 2000) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Roger Cruz (pencils), Mark Morales, Andy Owens & Art Thibert (inks)
Magneto: Dark Seduction#4 (September, 2000) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Jorge Garcia & Michael Ryan (pencils), Harry Candelario, Sandu Florea, Tyson McAdoo, Derek Mei & Rodney Ramos (inks)
Thunderbolts I#43 (October, 2000) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Mark Bagley (pencils), Greg Adams (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Thunderbolts I#49 (April, 2001) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Patrick Zircher (pencils), Al Vey (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Thunderbolts I#50 (May, 2001) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Mark Bagley (pencils), Greg Adams, Al Vey & Scott Hanna (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
The Order#2 (May, 2002) – Mary Jo Duffy & Kurt Busiek (writers), Chris Batista (pencils), Dan Panosian (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Thing & She-Hulk: The Long Night#1 (May, 2002) - Todd DeZago (writer), Bryan Hitch & Ivan Reis (pencils), Paul Neary & Randy Emberlin (inks), Jaye Gardner & Tom Brevoort (editors)
She-Hulk I#2 (June, 2004) - Dan Slott (writer), Juan Bobillo (pencils), Marcelo Sosa (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Cable/Deadpool#7 (November, 2004) - Fabian Nicieza (writer), Patrick Zircher (pencils), Rob Ross & M3TH (inks), Nicole Wiley (editor)
Spider-Man Team-Up Special (May, 2005) - Todd DeZago (writer), Shane Davis (pencils), Lary Stucker (inks)
G.L.A.#2-3 (July-August, 2005) - Dan Slott (writer), Paul Pelletier (pencils), Rick Magyar (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Captain America IV#4 (April, 2005) - Ed Brubaker (writer), Steve Epting & Michael Lark (artists), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Captain America IV#9 (June, 2005) - Ed Brubaker (writer), Michael Lark (artist), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Captain America IV#12 (December, 2005) - Ed Brubaker (writer), Steve Epting & Michael Lark (artists), Tom Brevoort (editor)
GLX-Mas Special#1 (February, 2006) - Dan Slott (writer), Ty Templeton (artist), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Captain America IV#18 (July, 2006) - Ed Brubaker (writer), Steve Epting (artist), Tom Brevoort (editor)
All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#9 (September, 2006)
Wolverine IV#46 (November, 2006) - Marc Guggenheim (writer), Humberto Ramos (pencils), Carlos Cuevas (inks), Axel Alonso (editor)
Civil War: Fallen Son Daily Bugle Special #1 (May, 2007) - Bill Rosemann (editor)
Thunderbolts II#113, 115 (June, August, 2007) - Warren Ellis (writer), Mike Deodato Jr. (pencils & inks), Molly Lazer (editor)
Marvel Comics Presents II#5/2 (March, 2008) - Christos Gage (writer), Joyce Chin (artist), John Barber (editor)
Marvel Comics Presents II#6/2-7/2 (April-May, 2008) - Christos Gage (writer), Joyce Chin (artist), John Barber & Andy Schmidt (editors)
Ms. Marvel II#33 (January, 2009) - Brian Reed (writer), Adriana Melo (pencils), Mariah Benes (inks), Stephen Wacker (editor)
Dark Reign: New Nation #1/3 (February, 2009) - Greg Pak (writer), Leonardo Manco (artist), Bill Rosemann (editor)
Dark Reign Files I#1 (2009) - Jeff Youngquist (editor)
Dark Reign: New Nation#1 (February, 2009) - Greg Pak (writer), Leonardo Manco (artist), Bill Rosemann (editor)
Wolverine: Weapon X I#1 (June, 2009) - Jason Aaron (writer), Ron Garney(artist), Axel Alonso (editor)
War Machine II#8 (September, 2009) - Greg Pak (writer), Leonardo Manco (artist), Bill Rosemann (editor)
Tails of the Pet Avengers#1/4 (April, 2010) - Scott Gray (writer), Gurihiru (art), Nathan Cosby (editor)
Marvel Zombies Supreme#2 (May, 2011) - Frank Marraffino (writer), Fernando Blanco (pencils/inks), Jason Paz (inks), Mark Paniccia (editor)
Punisher War Zone III#4 recap page (February, 2012) - Greg Rucka (writer), Carmine Di Giandomenico (art), Ellie Pyle (asst. editor), Stephen Wacker (editor)
Avengers Assemble Annual#1 (March, 2013) - Christos Gage (writer), Tomm Coker, Mike Mayhew, Mike Deodato, Luke Ross, Valentine De Landro (art), Tom Brevoort & Lauren Sankovitch (editors)
Last updated: 02/11/13.
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