cagliostro-ohotmu-mainCAGLIOSTRO

Real Name: Unrevealed (possibly O-Bengh)

Identity/Class: Human (18th Century and modern era) magic-user;
    former citizen of India;
    no true citizenship;
    Sicilian citizen;
    active from 1000 AD into modern era, notably including 11th-17th centuries, 18th-19th centuries, and the early 1900's,; presumably also 1930-1945, 1945-1960, and the pre-modern era.

Occupation: Sorcerer, alchemist;
    former Romany warlock king;
    former advisor to King Louis XVI

Group Membership: Black Coats, Brothers of Mercy (including Bel Demonio/Beautiful Demon), the Freemasons, Illuminati of Bavaria, the Knights of Light, the Immortal Nine / Nine Unknown (formerly Al-Tothas, Orphelus; possibly Aged Genghis, unidentified earlier Black Panther, "Fu Manchu," Kaballa, Merlin, Tyrannus, Yellow Claw/Plan Chu), the Rosicrucians, the Society of Asiatic Brothers;
    formerly led a group of Romany

Affiliations: Brujas of Tierra de Fuego, Cagliostro magical doppelganger, Captain Marvel (Monica Rambeau), Comte St. Germaine, Cyttorak, Dr. Victor von Doom, Jacques DuBois, golems, the Living Buddha, Marie Laveau (former lover), the Macumba, Montpellier, Munnopor, Shaksa, Soul-Stealers of China;
    advisor to
King Louis XVI (but secretly plotted his downfall)
    possibly Grand Master Pinto

Enemies: Al-Tothas, Baron Blood (Victor Strange), Brother Voodoo of 1800s, Cagliostro (Giuseppe (Joseph) Balsamo), Dracula, the Holy Office of Italy, Karlos, King Louis XVI and the monarchy, Murgo;
  Jackson Kubbard, Sise-Neg (both impersonated him);
    possibly Marano 

Known Relatives: Lorenza Serafina (wife, presumably deceased/destroyed), Lubya (wife), Miarka (daughter), Taboo, Jackson Kubbard (sons), Lilia Murgo (granddaughter, deceased), Algon (grandson, deceased), Topaz (adopted granddaughter), Lilia Calderu (great-granddaughter, deceased), Astrid Mordo (great, great-granddaughter)

Aliases: Al-Tothas, Giuseppe (Joseph) Balsamo, Allesandro di Cagliostro, Count Cagliostro, Endless One, Olden King of the Gypsies

Place of Birth: Kanchipuram (in modern-day Tamil Nadu, India)

Base of Operations: private penthouse at the Plaza Omni Hotel, Manhattan, New York;
    formerly with a group of Romany amongst the Carpathian Mountains in Transylvania;
    formerly the Crypts of Kaa-U, Tibet;
    formerly China;
    formerly Tierra del Fuego;
    formerly Brazil;
    formerly New Orleans, Louisiana;
    formerly Haiti;
    formerly a cell in Italy (18th Century);
    formerly the Bastille, France;
    formerly the Court of King Louis XVI (
18th Century, Paris, France;
    formerly Bavaria, Germany;
    formerly mobile across Persia, Armenia, Egypt, Greece, and Romania;
    formerly an unspecified court in India;
    see comments

Extent of Education: Extensively self-taught in sorcery

First Appearance: (Mentioned) Dracula Lives#1 (1973);
    (seen) Dracula Lives#5/2 (March, 1974)

Powers/Abilities: Cagliostro is a master sorcerer, able to perform numerous feats of magic, such as teleporting himself or others, illusion casting, minor restructuring of matter, unleashing energy blasts, forming shields, mind transference, binding or crushing others with Vapor Claws, muting (preventing the speech of) others, etc. He is likely capable of telepathy, astral projection, and time travel.

    He has managed to maintain his youth via several means, including a potion requiring vampire blood, among other things.

    He can create mindless golems--possessing super-strength and able to change shape--to perform various acts.

    He has an extensive knowledge of magical lore and alchemy, and can invoke numerous beings of power (such as Cyttorak, Munnopor and Shaksa) via incantations or spells (exocentric magic), to perform a variety of unspecified acts.

    He formerly had access to the legendary Darkhold, and he at least formerly had access to one incarnation of the Black Mirror.

    The Book of Cagliostro is one of the most powerful magic tomes

Height: 5'11" (variable)
Weight: 175 lbs. (variable)
Eyes: Brown (variable)
Hair: Black (variable)

History:

(Real World history / Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - Cagliostro’s legend dates to circa 1000 AD, when, as O-Bengh, he ruled a court in India, and was already accounted a mighty sorcerer-king.

(Iron Man I#149 (fb) - BTS/Jean-Marc Lofficier) - Dr. Victor von Doom traveled back in time to learn sorcery under an aged Cagliostro.

(Iron Man I#149) - Cagliostro completed his training of Doom, claiming to have imparted "every magick, every spell, every defense, and every assault that my sorcery can offer." In return, Doom gave the sorcerer a chest full of gems, which Cagliostro intended to use to purchase the last of the rare herbs and talismans he needed for his immortality conjurations. Doom warned him to take care, lest eternity become more burden than boon. As Doom vanished via his time machine, Cagliostro proclaimed, "By Shaksa! With power like that, why would such a sorcerer covet my petty spells?!"

(Real World history / Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z#2: Cagliostro entry / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - The aging king’s quest for immortality unleashed a plague, driving his people westward through Persia, Armenia, Egypt, Greece and Romania, and the tribe spread, becoming ever more diverse, being called Romany or Gypsies (as they were mistakenly believed to have come from Egypt).

(Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - From the Aged Genghis, O-Bengh learned of the Immortal Nine (aka the Nine Unknown), who partook of the life-giving Pool of Blood; located in Britain and composed of the blood of all those who had ever died in the world’s history, its powers allegedly came from Hell. Drinking of the pool restored a person to the prime of his or her life, though the effects may have only lasted 100 years. Since time immemorial, nine beings supped from the pool, once every century, though these Immortal Nine changed over time. In order to join the Nine, one had to kill a member and take his or her place.

(Real World history / Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z#2: Cagliostro entry / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - O-Bengh eventually slew his then-mentor, the Egyptian wizard Al-Tothas (the author of alchemy and of the Emerald Table), usurping his form, name and place in the Immortal Nine.

(Doctor Strange, Sorcerer Supreme#15/2) <1549> - O-Bengh/Al-Tothas earned the vampire-lord Dracula’s ire by slaying the gypsy thief Murgo, who had acquired the legendary Darkhold tome for Dracula from the Vatican, which O-Bengh sought for his own.

(Avengers I#187 (fb) - BTS) - Cagliostro acquired the Darkhold.

(Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z#2: Cagliostro entry / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - O-Bengh and Dracula clashed repeatedly over the subsequent decades.

(Jean-Marc L'Officier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z#2: Cagliostro entry / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - In the Darkhold, O-Bengh discovered an immortality potion incorporating vampire blood, alleviating his immortality’s dependence on the inconvenient centennial ritual for which several people had already tried to kill him to usurp his place.

(Real World history / Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z#2: Cagliostro entry / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - In or about 1760, O-Bengh took in a young apprentice sorcerer, Giuseppe (Joseph) Balsamo (born 1743) and, together with Giuseppe’s lover, Lorenza Feliciani, also called Serafina, they traveled throughout Southern Europe and the Middle East, gathering much occult knowledge.

(Marvel Fanfare I#42/2 (fb) - BTS) - Presumably amongst the occult materials they acquired was the (or "a") Black Mirror.

(Real World history / Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - In Rome in 1768, Giuseppe who, by then, had taken to calling himself Count Cagliostro, married Lorenza.

    Driven away by the Inquisition, O-Bengh, Giuseppe, and Lorenza moved to England, where they met Count Saint-Germain, who initiated them into Freemasonry.

    After visiting Germany, where they joined the ranks of the Illuminati of Bavaria, the trio arrived in France in 1772, where they quickly acquired a reputation as seers and sorcerers.

(Real World history / Jean-Marc Lofficier's's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#2: Cagliostro entry / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - In 1774, O-Bengh, with Lorenza’s complicity, killed Giuseppe and took his place, becoming Cagliostro. He and Lorenza led people to believe that the aged Al-Tothas had died of natural causes, and that the younger Balsamo inherited his powers.

(Real World history / Dracula Lives#5/4 (fb) - BTS / Jean-Marc L'Officier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - The “new” Cagliostro quickly became advisor to the court of French King Louis XVI. However, his agenda remained that of the Illuminati: to plot the downfall of the Monarchy and bring about the French Revolution.

(Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - It is speculated that at that time Cagliostro lost possession of his copy of the Darkhold, in unrevealed circumstances.

(Dracula Lives#5/4 (fb) - BTS) / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - In 1784, Cagliostro sent agents to slay Dracula, who slew the assassins after learning who had sent them. Dracula then traveled to the court of King Louis XVI and offered him a small chest of gems and requested and received a position as one of his advisors.

(Marvel Fanfare I#42/2 / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) <1784> - Soon after, a time-traveling Captain Marvel (Monica Rambeau) arrived in Paris through Cagliostro’s magical Black Mirror, sent there from the future (the modern era) to acquire vampire blood by sorceress Marie Laveau (who had initimate knowledge of Cagliostro).

    Cagliostro initially suspected Monica to be a demon and attempted to bind her with the Crimson Bands of Cyttorak. Monica escaped the spell and explained that she had been sent back in time to get a sample of blood from Dracula. Cagliostro then led her to a ball and directed her to Dracula. Later after Monica's nearly fatal struggle with Dracula, Cagliostro urged her to return to her own time through the Black Mirror immediately to avoid the vampire's vengeance.

    Cagliostro's assisting Rambeau furthered the enmity between Cagliostro and Dracula.

(Dracula Lives#5/4 / Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - Cagliostro then sent his men to kill the vampire-lord and used a spell to kill Dracula’s servant Karlos.

    Furious, Dracula confronted Cagliostro, who attempted to slay him with magical vapor claws. Dracula instead threw off the assault, mesmerized the sorcerer, and prepared to bite him. However, Cagliostro's wife, Lorenza Serafina, smashed Dracula over the back of the head with a vase. This served only to distract Dracula, and it allowed him to recall his true purpose in confronting Cagliostro. Wishing to pay the sorcerer back in kind for slaying Karlos, Dracula bit Lorenza and drained her blood. Cagliostro tended to his wife, working his magics on her, and after three days he was seemingly rewarded when she recovered.

    Later, back in King Louis XVI's court, Cagliostro taunted Dracula, but the Lord of the Undead responded by revealing that Lorenza had truly died, and she was now a vampire.

    During this encounter, Dracula correctly surmised that Cagliostro had long since parted with the Darkhold.

(Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - Cagliostro focused his magic on futile attempts to cure Lorenza.

( Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti) - Though Cagliostro's spell continued to keep him young, he had to use illusions to hide his youth to avoid the scrutiny of others, such as the watchful eyes of the Vatican.

(Dracula Lives#3/7 (fb) - BTS/Tomb of Dracula II#3/2 - BTS) <1769?> - Around that time, Cagliostro gave a special potion to sculptor Jacques DuBois, and had him use it to animate a statue and send it to slay Dracula. Dracula defeated DuBois and the statue, though DuBois would plague him again in the modern era.

(Dracula Lives#6/5 / Marvel Premiere#13 / Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - In 1786, Cagliostro became involved in the Affair of the Necklace, one of the major events that led to the French Revolution. As a result, he spent six months in the Bastille and then was banished from France.

    Leaving Lorenza behind, he searched for a cure for her vampirism.

(Marvel Premiere#13 / Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - During his absence, a sorcerer from the distant future, Sise-Neg, briefly impersonated Cagliostro (apparently unknown to Cagliostro) before plunging further back in time, leaving behind his journal, Il Libri di Cagliostro (The Book of Cagliostro).

(Dracula Lives#6/5/Marvel Premiere#13/Jean-Marc Lofficier) <July 14, 1789> - Cagliostro, having failed to find a cure for Lorenza, briefly returned to France to collect his wife. Before leaving again, this time with her, he sent his ally, Montpellier and others, to ambush and capture Dracula. However, when the lower class stormed the Bastille, Dracula was unwittingly freed, and he escaped.

(Jean-Marc L'Officier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z#2: Cagliostro entry / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) <1790> - In an effort to cure Lorenza, Cagliostro traveled to the Vatican, where he consulted their copy of the Darkhold and its guardian, Luciano Montesi, but neither had the means to cure vampirism, and Cagliostro was finally forced to stake Lorenza in 1791.

(Real World history / Dr. Strange, Sorcerer Supreme#8/2 (fb) / Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - Cagliostro created and allowed the capture of a doppelganger in his native Italy by the Holy Office, as part of the Inquistion. He was charged on the grounds that Freemasonry was heresy, and he imprisoned for life in the Castle of San Leo near Montefeltro. However, he left a magical doppelganger in his cell and escaped.

(Dr. Strange, Sorcerer Supreme#8/2 (fb) / Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - Cagliostro then went to live with the Romany for some time, again becoming their warlock king.

(Dr. Strange: Sorcerer Supreme#10/2 (fb) - BTS / Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - The golem, still believed to be the real Cagliostro, perished in prison in 1795.

(Jean-Marc L'Officier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z#2: Cagliostro entry / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - After Sise-Neg left 18th Century France and headed towards the beginning of time in search of power, the true Cagliostro returned to Paris.

    Discovering Sise-Neg's notes, Cagliostro combined them with ideas he had taken from the Darkhold and other information he had learned from studying the time travel of Dr. Doom, including them all in what would become known as the Book of Cagliostro.

(Jean-Marc L'Officier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z#2: Cagliostro entry / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - In the early 1800s Cagliostro visited Haiti and the mystic Brother Voodoo, hoping to learn the secret of resurrection for Lorenza, but he quickly realized that the curse of the zombie was worse than vampirism.

(Dracula Lives#2/7 (fb) / /Doctor Strange, Sorcerer Supreme#10/2) - In the latter part of the 19th century, Cagliostro traveled to New Orleans, intending to steal Marie Laveau’s voodoo secrets, perhaps even kill her afterwards. Instead, he became her lover, and after she helped him forget Lorenza, he taught her his Darkhold formula for immortality; the formula, however, was incomplete, either by accident or design, and Laveau aged very slowly after this. It was for this very formula that the older Laveau would send Rambeau back in time over 100 years later.

(Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - Cagliostro traveled the world, expanding his arcane knowledge, learning of the Macumba in Brazil, the Brujas in Tierra Del Fuego, the Soul-Stealers in China, and the Living Buddha in Tibet’s Crypts of Kaa-U.

(Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z#2: Cagliostro entry / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - In the early 1900s, Cagliostro rejoined the Romany once again. He married Lubya, fathered Taboo and Miarka and then departed for good.

(Jean-Marc L'Officier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z#2: Cagliostro entry / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - Over the years, Cagliostro kept to his decadent lifestyle, going from identity to identity, switching names and appearances like a chameleon.

    Using that time to build up fortune and fame, trying to remain hidden from the enemies he had already made.

(Jean-Marc L'Officier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - Cagliostro had at least one more son, Jackson Kubbard, who later claimed to be Cagliostro’s reincarnation.

(Fear#9/2 (BTS) / Jean-Marc L'Officier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry) - In the 1920's, a journal written by Cagliostro fell into the hands of Marko, a stage magician intent on proving himself to be the world's greatest magician. Marko discovered amongst Cagliostro's notes a formula for a shriking serum, and intended to use it on stage to make himself seem to vanish, but his asisstant Waldo Roberts locked him in his dressing room and used the formula instead. Unfortunately, Marko had not found an antidote for the shrinking serum, and Waldo was left in a tiny body.

(Dracula Lives#1 / All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z#2: Cagliostro entry - BTS) - In Manhattan, Jackson Kubbard, falsely claimed to be the reincarnation of Cagliostro, but was revealed to be an imposter by Dracula, who had come seeking his old enemy. Kubbard's claims also drew the attention of Marie Laveau, who sent her aid, Gaston, to investigate.

(Daredevil I#143 - BTS) - Mr. Hyde once sought another of Cagliostro's formulas to gain great power, but Daredevil destroyed the serum (apparently only able to be created once) before he could use it

(Dr. Strange II#62 - BTW) - In recent years, Dr. Strange’s recitation of the Montesi Formula destroyed all vampires, which also destroyed the magic providing Cagliostro’s immortality, while the Pool of Blood had been destroyed years before. 

(Dr. Strange, Sorcerer Supreme Annual#2/4 (fb) - BTS) - Cagliostro's supply of vampire blood--which he needed for a potion to maintain his youth--ran out. Posing as a normal wealthy man under his old name of Giuseppe Balsamo, he rented out a private penthouse at the Plaza Omni Hotel.  Learning of the existence of the new vampire in town, Baron Blood (Victor Strange), Cagliostro created some mindless servants, his golems, which he sent out to set a trap to capture Victor.

(Dr. Strange, Sorcerer Supreme Annual#2/4) - Cagliostro's golems took human form and posed as a pair of male muggers and a female victim, and they then succeeded in surprising and subduing Victor Strange when he tried to save the victim. After taking a sample of Strange's blood, Cagliostro instructed his golems to destroy the vampire. Victor broke free and escaped the chamber, discovering himself in a ballroom in the midst of a large party hosted by Balsamo. Victor tried to expose Balsamo's activities, but found himself unable to speak due to magical spell. Cagliostro then pointed out that dawn was approaching and that Victor should fly away and return to his coffin before being turned to dust. When Victor saw that he had no choice but to agree, Cagliostro teleported Victor back to his apartment.

 

 

 

Comments: Adapted to comics by Gerry Conway and Frank Springer.

CAGLIOSTRO, the UNTOLD STORY

    Jean-Marc Lofficier had written a Book of the Vishanti feature on Cagliostro that was to have been published as a back-up in the third Dr. Strange series. For whatever reason, this story never saw print (The material was commissioned, written, and paid for by Marvel). Jean-Marc Lofficier was kind enough to share the information with Erik, the author of the Dr. Strange, Sorcerer Supreme website, who put the information in a great profile that you can find under the Friends and Foes sub-section of his site: http://www.drstrange.nl/
    In addition, Jean-Marc Lofficier and Erik apparently went through all of the Cagliostro stories and the real world history, and then they decided what to include and what to throw out. I'm of the mind that things should not be thrown out, but rather that we should try to see how everything fits together. The information from Jean-Marc Lofficier's unpublished Book of the Vishanti was covered in the
All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z#2: Cagliostro entry, and it was further fleshed out by Jean-Marc Lofficier in the Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry.
    For whatever reason, I only

   
Jean-Marc Lofficier himself had this response, including his full take on things:

    The Marvel Cagliostro is a lot older than the historical Cagliostro (Or the Alexandre Dumas Cagliostro). I was in fact planning to link the origins of Cagliostro, as well as that of other immortals, to that POOL OF BLOOD that made people immortal, which was introduced in TOMB OF DRACULA I#15. You remember the Old Roman (Orphelus) who wanted Dracula to take him there and ended up destroying the Pool of Blood?
    So the "real" Cagliostro did look like that weird Ancient One-looking guy from IRON MAN (the one that trained Dr. Doom). There would have been eight other Immortals -- after THE NINE UNKNOWN -- who drank from the POOL OF BLOOD in some unspecified past, but because of the Roman guy, I'm willing to say it was in the days of the Roman Empire, or maybe the Roman was a new addition to the Nine and the whole thing went further back. I can't recall if I had made up my mind.
    One of the NINE was the man who would one day become Cagliostro (I had not decided on his "real name" other than he was the legendary KING OF THE GYPSIES and wore the TALISMAN OF THE VOIVODES, the holy emblem of Gypsy Royalty), the other was the Roman, another one was the YELLOW CLAW (Roy Thomas and I dealt with that in a CAPTAIN AMERICA story that was partially drawn but never printed), and I left the other 5 men/women mysterious.
Could have been the Marvel Fu Manchu, etc.
    So in short the real Cagliostro is much, much older than Joseph Balsamo. He did once look like the guy Dr Doom met, and that is the way he really used to look like. And Doom met him in the far past. JOSEPH + GIUSEPPE BALSAMO was just one of the many fake IDs he used throughout history to hide the fact he was the same man.  In fact there was no ALTHOTAS. Althotas was Balsamo's old master according to Dumas. In my version of events, Althotas was merely the same man (Cagliostro) in his previous guise, and he just faked it all. So that when old Althotas died, no one would be surprised to see young Balsamo inherit all his powers.  You see? So the whole Joseph Balsamo birthdate, resume, etc. is basically a forgery.
    All that would have been explained in the BOOK OF VISHANTI, and therefore there was no time travel or paradox involving Cagliostro, as you surmised.
It really was Cagliostro/Althotas that killed Murgo to steal the Darkhold in 1459. Occam's razor, my friend! If I tell you Cagliostro was there before, and you
have a choice between time travel and a simple lie on a birth record, you should go with the lie! :-) And also the "clue" about the old-looking geezer -- why assume it was an illusion when it is easier to assume it was the real Cagliostro, and it's the young version who is the fake! Ah ha!
    Anyway, from there you can string it up in chronological order. I think I hinted at other battles between Dracula and Cagliostro between the Murgo incident and their encounter at the French Court just prior to the Revolution.
    Another thing: Cagliostro was already immortal before he stole the Darkhold. He used the Darkhold to acquire more powers, and maybe supplant his need for the Pool of Blood (which must not have been of easy access) with a more handy potion made of vampires' blood. You note the thematic link between the two concepts.
    Under Group Membership, the whole Brothers of Mercy / Black Coats etc. is mostly taken from Paul Féval and Alexandre Dumas. It harks back to the notion of Cagliostro being part of the Illuminati conspiracy (the Rosicrucians too) to bring down the Monarchies. There's nothing in the Marvel Cagliostro that indicates that this was the case with him. I'll leave it up to you to decide if you want to combine the two versions or not. (If you do, corrections: Bel Demonio was "Beautiful Demon", same guy, and add Illuminati, Rosicrucians and the Black Coats in addition to the Freemasons. If you decide to use my notes above add The Nine Unknown.)

    The connection with Saint-Germain (no "e") is dubious at best, I think.
The wives. Actually we have two recorded wives:
    Lorenza Feliciani (from the Dumas + Feval versions)
    Seraphine Feliciani (from Kortzwinkle's FATA MORGANA novel)
If you're interested in a non-Marvel, pulp lit genealogy, check: http://www.coolfrenchcomics.com/wnu0f.htm
But I'd leave it all out except the two wives. I forgot which one was in TOMB OF DRACULA. There were sisters of course. And mediums.
    I think this pretty much covers it all.

In fact, you can view his unpublished story at http://www.marvunapp.com/Appendix/cagliostrosecret.htm

JM

    Morgana Blessing revealed to Victor that Balsamo was actually Cagliostro, but she mistakenly described Dr. Strange as having fought him, with a footnote to Marvel Premiere#13 + 14. That struggle did not actually involve Cagliostro, but rather Sise-Neg, who was impersonating Cagliostro.

    Interestingly, the Book of the Vishanti entry in Dr. Strange: Sorcerer Supreme#8/2 predicted that Lilia would one day gain vengeance on Mordo. This was not dealt with until Dr. Strange: Sorcerer Supreme#84-87, in which Astrid, the daughter of Mordo and Lilia plotted against her father, bringing about his death. Not that he stayed dead, of course...

Cagliostro and Dracula

    The stories in Dracula Lives, as well as the extensive history narrative from ToD II#3/2 dated the beginning of Dracula and Cagliostro's enmity began in the latter half of the 18th Century. Dracula (and the Darkhold)'s history from Dr. Strange: Sorcerer Supreme#15/2 established it as having occurred much earlier, in the 15th Century.

    As hinted at in the Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Update '89#2 and the Book of the Vishanti back-up feature, and as confirmed by Jean-Marc Lofficier, the next person to possess the Darkhold after Cagliostro was the vampire, Lord Ruthven, followed by Taboo. How Cagliostro lost the Darkhold, however, is unclear.

    Dr. Strange: Sorcerer Supreme#15/2 lists a 1775 struggle as Dracula and Cagliostro's last recorded battle.

    Maybe there was some connection between Cagliostro's formula which he gave to Jacques DuBois, and the one discovered by the Grey Gargoyle, Paul Pierre Duval (also a Frenchman!). The date of the 1769 encounter with DuBois is questionable, based on Erik + Jean-Marc Lofficier's timeline.

    In Tomb of Dracula II#3/2, it is speculated that the event that caused Dracula to appear at the court of King Louis and become an advisor to the King was the notorious Affair of the Diamond Necklace, in which a member of the court, the Comtesse de la Motte, duped Cardinal Rohan into purchasing a fabulously expensive diamond necklace for her under the pretense that it is for Marie Antoinette, the queen. When Rohan was unable to meet payments for the necklace, the jewelers from whom it was bought confronted the queen directly. Instead of hushing up the scandal, Louis had Rohan imprisoned and tried. Rohan was acquitted on all counts, yet he was deprived of his holdings and exiled, showing the despotic and insecure nature of Louis' rule.

Here's a more info, derived from some facts on St. Germaine: http://www.crystalinks.com/germain.html
    In Vienna the Comte St. Germaine took part in the foundation of the Society of Asiatic Brothers and of the Knights of Light, who studied alchemy; and it was he who gave Mesmer his fundamental ideas on personal magnetism and hypnotism. It is said that he initiated Cagliostro, who visited him on several occasions in Holstein to receive directions from him, though there is no direct evidence for this. The two men were to be far separated from one another by opposite currents and a different fate.

    With the co-operation of Savalette de Lange, who was the nominal head, he founded the group of Philalethes, or truth-lovers, which was recruited from the cream of the Friends Assembled. The Prince of Hesse, Condorcet, and Cagliostro were all members of this group.

    Although, on the evidence of reliable witnesses, the Comte St. Germaine must have been at least a hundred years old in 1784, his death in that year cannot have been genuine. The official documents of Freemasonry say that in 1785 the French masons chose him as their representative at the great convention that took place in that year, with Mesmer, Saint-Martin, and Cagliostro present.

    One of many pages available on the life of the real world Cagliostro is here: http://www.themystica.com/mystica/articles/c/cagliostro.html

Profile by Snood,
    with much thanks to Jean-Marc Lofficier and
Erik Elzenaar, Serving the Master of the Mystic Arts at...Doctor Strange... Sorcerer Supreme
http://www.drstrange.nl

The Book of Cagliostro has a small entry in Mystic Arcana: The Book of Marvel Magic.

CLARIFICATIONS:
Cagliostro should be distinguished from:

Cagliostro's golems have known connection to:


Book of Cagliostro

    Actually translated from "Il Libro di Cagliostro," the Book of Cagliostro was written after Cagliostro returned to Paris, and combined information from the Darkhold, as well as information from the notes left behind by Sise-Neg whilst he impersonated Cagliostro.

    The Book was eventually entrusted to the gypsies with whom Cagliostro had dwelt with for some time.  The book had passed down from generation to generation of women, going from Miarka (the former mistress of Nikolai Mordo) to her daughter Lilia and then to her daughter, also named Lilia. Baron (Karl) Mordo sought the book to gain the power to oppose Dr. Strange and the Ancient One, and so seduced Lilia (the daughter of his half-sister!). Eventually, Lilia shared the secret location of the Book to Mordo, who then attacked her, stole the tome, and left her for dead. Mordo then learned the secrets of the Book, making himself formidable enough to combat his former master, the Ancient One.

    Lilia survived, and years later she was convinced by Dr. Strange to reveal where Mordo had taken the Book. Seeking out the Book, Strange and Lilia were attacked by the Living Gargoyle placed as its guard by Mordo. Strange used the Book to travel through time, encountering Sise-Neg, who was impersonating Cagliostro at the time.

    Among other things, the Book of Cagliostro detailed how to travel through time.

--Marvel Premiere#12 (November, 1973);
    (Dr. Strange: Sorcerer Supreme#8/2, Marvel Premiere#12(fb), 12


images (including ads):
Dr. Strange: Sorcerer Supreme#8, second story, p3, pan5 - digitally remastered and reconstructed for
All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z#2: Cagliostro entry
Iron Man I#149, p9, pan5;
Marvel Fanfare I#42, p28, pan2;
Dracula Lives#5, p34, pan3;
Dr. Strange: Sorcerer Supreme#10, second story, p2, pan4;
Dr. Strange: Sorcerer Supreme Annual#2, p49, pan4 and p53, pan5;
Book: Dr. Strange: Sorcerer Supreme#8, second story, p3, pan4


Appearances:
Dracula Lives#1 (1973) - Steve Gerber (writer), Rich Buckler (pencils), Pablo Marcos (inks), Roy Thomas (editor)
Dracula Lives#5 (March, 1974) - Gerry Conway (writer), Frank Springer (artist), Roy Thomas (editor)
Fear#9 (August, 1972) - Mimi Gold (writer), Bill Everett (artist), Stan Lee (editor)
Dracula Lives#2 (August, 1973) - Roy Thomas (writer/editor), Gene Colan (pencils), Dick Giordano (inks)
Dracula Lives#3 (October, 1973) - Gerry Conway (writer), Alfonso Font (artist), Roy Thomas (editor)
Marvel Premiere#12 (November, 1973) - Book of Cagliostro only - Steve Englehart, Mike Friedrich & Frank Brunner (writers), Frank Brunner (pencils), Crusty Bunkers (inks), Roy Thomas (editor)
Marvel Premiere#13 (January, 1974) - Steve Englehart & Frank Brunner (writers), Frank Brunner (pencils), Crusty Bunkers (inks), Roy Thomas (editor)
Dracula Lives#5 (March, 1974) - Gerry Conway (writer), Frank Springer (artist), Roy Thomas (editor)
Dracula Lives#6 (May, 1974) - Tony Isabella (writer), John Buscema (pencils), Pablo Marcos (inks), Roy Thomas (editor)
Daredevil I#143 (March, 1977) - Marv Wolfman (writer/editor), Bob Brown (artist), Keith Pollard (inker)
Avengers I#187 (September, 1979) - Mark Gruenwald, Steven Grant & David Michelinie (writers), John Byrne (pencils), Dan Green (inks), Roger Stern (editor)
Tomb of Dracula II#3 (February, 1980) - Marv Wolfman (writer), Gene Colan (pencils), Tom Palmer (inks), Lynn Graeme (editor)
Iron Man I#149 (August, 1981) - Bob Layton & David Michelinie (writers), John Romita Jr. (pencils), Bob Layton (inks), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Marvel Fanfare I#42 (February, 1989) - Dennis Mallonee (writer), Bob Hall (pencils), Bill Sienkiewicz (inks), Al Milgrom (editor)
Dr. Strange: Sorcerer Supreme#8 (October, 1989) - Roy Thomas & Jean-Marc Lofficier (writers), Tom Sutton (artist), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Dr. Strange: Sorcerer Supreme#10 (November, 1989) - Roy Thomas & Jean-Marc Lofficier (writers), David & Dan Day (artists), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Dr. Strange: Sorcerer Supreme#15 (March, 1990) - Roy Thomas & Jean-Marc Lofficier (writers), David & Dan Day (artists), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Dr. Strange: Sorcerer Supreme Annual#2 (1992) - Roy Thomas & Jean-Marc Lofficier (writers), Dave Hoover (pencils), Bob Petrecca (inks), Mike Rockwitz (editor)
All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z#2: Cagliostro entry
Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z hardcover#2: Cagliostro entry


First posted: 02/08/2004
Last updated: 05/11/2020

Any Additions/Corrections? please let me know.

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