(The whole Rama-Tut/Scarlet Centurion/Kang/Immortus/Iron Lad deal is pretty complicated. I've focused on information directly related to Rama here, there's an Immortus page on the Appendix, and there's a Scarlet Centurion page as well...hopefully I'll have the time to profile Kang as well in the not so distant future)

Real Name: Nathaniel Richards

Identity/Class: Extratemporal (Earth-6311/Other-Earth) human technology user;
    active in this incarnation circa 2950-2920 BC and briefly in the modern era

Occupation: Former Pharaoh, adventurer, conqueror

Group Membership: None
    (as Kang) former member of
Council of Kangs, Cross-Time Kangs, Legion Accursed;

Affiliations: Worshipped by the people of Ancient Egypt circa 2950-2920 BC, served by Egypt's armies and guards;
    Avengers (Hawkeye/Clint Barton, Iron Man/Tony Stark, Mantis, Scarlet Witch/Wanda Maximoff, Swordsman/Jacques DuQuesne, Thor Odinson, Tigra/Greer Nelson, Vision/"Victor Shade," Wonder Man), Dr. Doom (Victor von Doom), Agatha Harkness, Immortus
, Shamaz;
    formerly Baal of the Crimson Sands, Logos, Ozymandias, Nephri, Ravonna, Sandstormers/People of the Sands, his robots, and his other robots
    (as Kang) led massive interstellar army; gathered a Legion of the Unliving and the Anachronauts;

Enemies: (First Reign) Amenhotep, Apocalypse (En Sabah Nur), Avengers (Hawkeye/Clint Barton, Iron Man/Tony Stark, Tigra/Greer Nelson, Wonder Man), Baal of the Crimson Sands, Blacquesmith, Cable, Dr. Stephen Strange, Ennead/Heliopolitan gods, Fantastic Four (Human Torch/Johnny Storm, Invisible Girl/Sue Storm, Mr. Fantastic/Reed Richards), Genetix (Base, Ridge, Shift, Stinger, Vesper), Khonshu, Killpower, Ozymandias, previous Pharaoh (see comments), Priests of Khonshu, Samira, Sandstormers/People of the Sands;
    (Second Reign) Akhenaten, Kang, Macrobots
    (Scarlet Centurion, pre-divergence) Avengers of Earth-616 (Black Panther/T'Challa, Captain America/Steve Rogers, Goliath/Hank Pym, Hawkeye/Clint Barton, Wasp/Janet Van Dyne); Avengers (Giant-Man/Hank Pym, Hulk/Bruce Banner, Iron Man/Tony Stark, Thor Odinson, Wasp/Janet Van Dyne) and all other heroes of
Earth-689; Immortus
    Morgan of 31st century Earth-6311;
Fantastic Four of Earth-7712;
    (Kang enemies will have to wait for his own profile)

Known Relatives: Ramades (son), Marcus Kang I-XXIII (sons, deceased), unidentified parents; John, Laura, Nathaniel and Cassandra Richards, Nathaniel Richards Jr., and Nedra, matriarch of the Eyriennes (ancestors); Tara (Huntara), Reed Richards (Mr. Fantastic), Franklin and Valeria Richards, extended Richards family, Brigit & various Eyriennes (common ancestry); Victor von Doom (alleged ancestor); Kristoff Vernard (alleged common ancestry); Kang, Immortus, Iron Lad, Scarlet Centurion and numerous other alternate reality counterparts and their offspring

Aliases: King of Kings, Master of Men, Lord of the Seven Suns, "the visitor from beyond the sun" (alleged translation of Rama-Tut);
    formerly Kang, Scarlet Centurion, Blue Man, Victor Timely, Victor Timely Jr., Victor Timely III, Blue Totem; possibly Iron Lad

Base of Operations: Egypt, circa 2950-2940 BC, and again from 2937-2920 BC;
    the Pyramid of Rama-Tut, Egypt, in suspended animation, from 2920 BC until the modern era;
    formerly Earth-6311/Other-Earth, 31st century;
    (as Scarlet Centurion) formerly Earth-689;
    a partial listing of Kang bases follows:
    formerly Chronopolis;
    formerly Timely, Wisconsin @ 1901 A.D.;
    formerly the Kang Krossroads (presumably in some way associated with Limbo);
    formerly the
Council Chambers, apparently within Immortus' fortress in Limbo
Earth-Amusement World/Earth-791014 @ 3900;
    formerly Tombstone, Arizona, Earth-616, @ 1873;
    formerly Camelot, Earth-616, 6th century

First Appearance: Fantastic Four I#19 (October, 1963)

Powers/Abilities: Like others from his native era, Rama-Tut ages at a slightly slower rate than modern humanity and is more resistant to radiation's effects, though he can be harmed by concentrated doses. Following his revival in the 21st century, Rama demonstrated the ability to teleport around the planet at will, bringing others with him. It is unconfirmed whether this was an inherent or technologically granted ability, but the latter seems most likely.

    Rama-Tut is an expert in travel through and manipulation of time, and has mastered his future's advanced technology, though he he has proven unable to rebuild damaged equipment when lacking sufficient technology to do so. He is an expert strategist, historical scholar, a master physicist, engineer, and technician, and a veteran of armed and unarmed combat. By some accounts, during his second, 17 year reign of Egypt, he forgot how to work his time-travel equipment.

    Rama-Tut's chief weapon is his "ultra-diode" ray gun. At low intensities, it sap others' wills by generating a specific neuronic frequency that numbs the cerebral cortex to varying degrees; this setting is generally used to sap others wills and force them to obey his commands. At higher intensity, it can prevent superhumans from using their powers and can weaken others by numbing their entire central nervous system to varying degrees, potentially causing death by respiratory and/or cardiac arrest.

     Rama-Tut formerly used a 20' long space-worthy vehicle housing his time machine, which used an undetermined amount of energy to generate a chronal displacement inertial field that could reach all eras of all timelines by accessing the transtemporal realm of Limbo. He smashed this ship upon the start of his second reign of ancient Egypt, and its components may have been raided by Ramades. His later time-travels were apparently a result of being given equipment by Immortus.

    His Sphinx ship formerly housed his time-ship, and also contained numerous defense mechanisms, including lasers, stun-blasters, force fields, and at least two types of biped robot servants. All of Rama's technology within the Sphinx was destroyed following his departure at the end of his first reign. During his second reign, he designed some technologically advanced equipment within the Pyramid of Rama-Tut, which was later usurped by Kang.

    Rama designed a sarcophagus that placed him in suspended animation for nearly 5000 years within the Pyramid of Rama-Tut, and awakened him at the exact time period he had planned via sunlight-sensitive equipment and a series of mirrors that survived these millennia intact. At least during his first reign, he had access to various weapons

    Additionally, under unspecified circumstances, during his first reign, Rama-Tut transformed Amenhotep into a vampiric-creature via "making him drink the nectar of the undead." He also possessed a fragment of the chronifact for a period of time during his first reign. He originally possessed the Eye of Ages, an artifact that could grant visions of knowledge of the future, but he lost this upon his crash in first arriving in ancient Egypt.

Height: 6'3"
Weight: 230
Eyes: Brown
Hair: Brown

(What If? II#39 / Avengers Forever#9 (fb)) - <3000 (Other-Earth/Earth-6311 calendar)> - Rama-Tut was originally born Nathaniel Richards of Earth-6311 (Other-Earth), named for his ancestor, Nathaniel Richards the Benefactor.

(Young Avengers#2 (fb)) <3016 (Other-Earth calendar)> - At age 16, Nathaniel had developed an early Growing Man stimuloid. He was attacked at his schoolyard by Morgan, a bully who had humiliated him for years. Morgan slit Nathaniel's throat with the point of his anti-gravity unit. Nathaniel nearly died, spending a year in the hospital and almost bankrupting his parents.

(Fantastic Four I#19 (fb) / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z #6: Immortus) - As an adult, Nathaniel found himself a man of action and adventure in an age of peace and was bored with his own time. Viewing history tapes (presumably brought to Earth-6311 by Richards the Benefactor and including cross-dimensional recordings following Richards' departure from Earth-616), Nathaniel learned of the Fantastic Four and others of the heroic age of Earth-616 (though he may not have been initially aware that these beings were not from the past of his Earth).

(Avengers Forever#9 (fb)) - Seeking adventure and excitement -- like he had observed in his tapes -- in an age of peace and contentment, Nathaniel delved into his geneological history, finding the relics of an ancestor which some claimed to be Dr. Doom of the heroic era of Earth-616, while others claimed them to be Richards the Benefactor himself. These relics included the fortress of the Warlord, an alias used by Richards' wife, Cassandra, and mistakenly believed by many at the time to have been Nathaniel himself.

(What If? II#39 / Avengers Forever#9 (fb)) <3025 (Other-Earth calendar)> - - At age 25, Nathaniel Richards visited the ruins of the Warlord's fortress, left behind by his ancestor, Nathaniel Richards of Earth-616 nearly 1900 years before and preserved as a shrine. Within a long sealed chamber in the former fortress, he discovered a number of powerful weapons, which he began programming to serve his own ends. He also stumbled upon Nathaniel Richards' time platform, swiftly recognizing it for what it was.

(Fantastic Four I#19 (fb)) - Nathaniel discovered portions of a time machine and the instructions to operate the time machine.

(What If? II#39) - At this point, in response to a threat of Richards' future incarnation Immortus, the Time Variance Authority sent the Fantastic Four of Earth-7712 to use the Saturnyne Symbiont--a chronosynclastic nucleus designed by the scientists of omniversal majestrix Saturnyne, whose function was to weaken an organism's natural resistance to time energy. Implanted within Richards, this would make it impossible for him to store the nexus power and thus prevent him from becoming a temporal quantum wave as Immortus had become. Uatu suggested sending the Reed Richards Rocket Group--Earth-8212 Fantastic Four counterparts who had never gained their powers--to facilitate Richards' exposure to the Symbiont. However, the deputy secretary instead decided to send the more powerful Fantastic Four of Earth-7712 (Big Brain, Dragonfly, Mandroid, Ultra-Woman). This group failed, as their imposing nature made Richards' distrust them, and Richards' used the re-programmed weaponry from the Fortress to slay them all.
    The TVA then agreed to Uatu's original proposal, and the Rocket Group succeeded, as they appeared to be less threatening. Reed Richards of Earth-8212 convinced Nathaniel of his honesty by allowing him to sample both of their DNA and confirming Reed to be Nathaniel to be related. Accepting the reality of Immortus' threat, Nathaniel Richards agreed to willingly take the Symbiont, erasing Immortus' accumulated temporal energy and resolving the threat.

(Fantastic Four I#19 (fb) / Avengers Forever#9 (fb)) - Working from the remains of the Benefactor's device, Nathaniel of the 31st century spent years constructing his own time machine in the shape of an ancient idol, a Sphinx (to play on the superstitious beliefs of people of the past).

(Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Deluxe Edition#10: Rama-Tut) - Nathaniel planned to loot various time periods for weaponry and technology while making his base in ancient Egypt.

(Rise of Apocalypse #2 (fb)) - Nathaniel donned a decorative (and possibly armored) costume for his journey

(Fantastic Four I#19 (fb) / Captain America Annual#11/6 (fb)) - After loading a number of robots into the time ship, Nathaniel used it to travel back in time to the past of Earth-616.

(Fantastic Four I#19 (fb)) - Nathaniel traveled back to 2950 BC (the Second Dynasty), but due to a miscalculation his ship crashed and was damaged, preventing him from leaving that era. Further, he was blinded in the crash.

(Rise of Apocalypse #2 (fb)) - The crash was observed by Baal of the Crimson Sands, leader of the savage Sandstormers, and only they saw the burning fragment that broke from the Sphinx and was buried under the sands.

(Rise of Apocalypse#1 (fb) - BTS / Rise of Apocalypse #2 (fb)) - Baal and the Sandstormers found the broken and blinded Nathaniel. Recognizing his power and seeking to ally with him, they nursed him back to health over a period of weeks, saving his life.

(Rise of Apocalypse #2 (fb)) - Baal named the stranger Rama-Tut, meaning "The Visitor from Beyond the Sun."

(Rise of Apocalypse#1 (fb) - BTS / Rise of Apocalypse #2 (fb)) - Upon his recovery, however, Nathaniel disappeared suddenly during one night, taking with him the strange objects the Sandstormers had found in his vessel, his footsteps heading towards the Pharaoh's lands.

(Fantastic Four I#19 (fb) / Captain America Annual#11/6 (fb)) - The power of Nathaniel's weaponry and robots made the Egyptians he encountered his slaves, cowing them with an energy weapon even as he fired blindly at them.

(Fantastic Four I#19 (fb)) - The natives obtained for Nathaniel a rare herb that, affected by the radiation from his damaged machine, restored his sight.

(Rise of Apocalypse#2 (fb)/Vampires: The Marvel Undead#1 (fb) - BTS) - Nathaniel usurped the throne from the previous Pharaoh Amenhotep, whose children included Ozymandias and his younger sister Nephri.

(Rise of Apocalypse#2 (fb) - BTS/Vampires: The Marvel Undead#1 (fb) - BTS) - Rama-Tut faked Amenhotep's death.

(Avengers I#129 (fb) - BTS) - Rama-tut trapped Amenhotep within the Pyramid of Rama-Tut.

(Avengers I#129 (fb) - BTS /Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z Vol. 6: Kang) - Rama-Tut forced Pharaoh Amenhotep to drink the nectar of the undead, transforming him into vampiric form.

(Avengers Forever#9 (fb) / Fantastic Four I#19 (fb) / Captain America Annual#11/6 (fb)) - Nathaniel became Pharaoh Rama-Tut, ruling as a virtual god among men.

(West Coast Avengers II#23 (fb) - BTS) - Though enslaving much of the population's lower class, Rama-Tut made the upper class into the capital's citizens.

(Rise of Apocalypse#1 (fb) - BTS) - Rama-Tut made Ozymandias his general (though Ozymandias conspired to rule himself).

(Rise of Apocalypse#1 (fb) - BTS / Rise of Apocalypse #2 (fb)) - Weeks after his departure, Rama-Tut returned to the Sandstormers, armed with his advanced weaponry and commanding Egypt's army. He demanded to know where the Eye of Ages was (within the missing ship fragment).

(Rise of Apocalypse#1 (fb) - BTS / Rise of Apocalypse #2 (fb)) - Rama-Tut tortured the Sandstormer clan to force them to reveal the location of a missing fragment of his ship, but they refused to reveal its location to him. Rama massacred the Sandstormers and enslaved most of the survivors. However, Baal had secretly found the Eye of Ages, and in it, he saw the face of a man powerful enough to defeat Rama: Apocalypse (En Sabah Nur).

(Rise of Apocalypse#1 (fb) - BTS / Rise of Apocalypse #2 (fb)) - Only a few (including Baal), escaped from Rama-Tut.

(Rise of Apocalypse#1 (fb) - BTS) - Rama-Tut hunted the few Sandstormers who escaped like dogs.

(West Coast Avengers II#21 (fb) - BTS / Captain America Annual#11/6 (fb)) - Rama-Tut put an end to the worship of the other gods of Egypt (notably the Ennead/Heliopolitans), earning their ire.

(West Coast Avengers II#21 (fb) - BTS) - The Priests of Khonshu began digging a tunnel under the sands between the Temple of Khonshu and Rama-Tut's Sphinx.

(Marvel Knights 4#16 (fb) - BTS) - Circa 2945, Rama-Tut sired an illegitimate son, Ramades, with an Egyptian slave woman. Rama-Tut/Kang wasn't much of a father, "always running off to conquer the universe and such" and so Ramades grew up hating him.

(Killpower: The Early Years#1 (fb) - BTS) - Rama-Tut was frustrated as the sorceress Samira refused to bow to him.

(Killpower: The Early Years#1 (fb) - BTS) - Rama-Tut obtained a portion of the Chronifact when it was sent back in time. He studied it in secret to learn how to bend its powers to his will.

(Killpower: The Early Years#1) - Rama-Tut encountered Killpower, who had been sent into the past by the Time Guardian to locate a portion of the Chronifact and who had overpowered a group of Rama's guards and forced them to lead him back to their master. Intrigued by Killpower, Rama had a feast prepared for them, during which he had a servant hurl a number of asps at them, which he blamed on Samira. Rama then told Killpower that Samira had tried to destroy him because she feared that he would retrieve the Chronifact fragment, which she had stolen from Rama-Tut (in actuality, Rama still had the Chronifact fragment). Rama then slew the servant who had hurled the asps so that he could never reveal the truth.
    After Killpower departed, Rama returned to his efforts to master the Chronifact fragment. Samira, however, swiftly showed Killpower an image of Rama with the Chronifact, convinced Killpower that Rama had lied to him, and then sent Killpower back to confront him anew. When Rama threatened Killpower with his Ultra-Diode Ray, Killpower used an image projector to create multiple images of himself to confuse Rama. Just then, Genetix, sent back in time by Mys-Tech's Oonagh Mullarkey to retrieve Killpowerr. Never having met the Genetix before, Killpower assumed them to be more agents of Rama-Tut.

(Killpower: The Early Years#2) - When Stinger redirected Rama's ultra-diode ray blast back at him, he rushed to his arsenal, then began firing at them with a weapon too powerful for Stinger to absorb. Killpower then found the Chronifact fragment, and as soon as he grabbed it, the Time Guardian pulled him forward in time again. Samira then contacted Genetix and made a portal to send them after Genetix, while Rama fled deeper into his palace. Following their departure, Rama used another device to absorb the residual chronal energy.

(Rise of Apocalypse#1 (fb) - BTS) - Seeking power by joining Rama-Tut's family, Ozymandias pledged Nephri to become Rama's bride.

(Rise of Apocalypse#1) - When his grand vizier Logos came to report information, Rama overruled his general Ozymandias' refusal to let Logos speak. Logos brought word of En Sabah Nur, a young outlander of bizarre appearance and great strength within the Sandstormers/People of the Storm under Baal of the Crimson Sands.  Having known of the existence of Apocalypse, Rama intended to find the young Nur and guide his maturation, rather than allowing Baal, who intended for Nur to overthrow Rama-Tut, to do so. Rama ordered Ozymandias to find and bring the young Nur to him.
    While Baal showed Nur a subterranean chamber fragmented from Rama's original ship containing the Eye of Ages, Ozymandias led his armies to slaughter the Sandstormers. The Sandstormers, however, sensed their approach and ambushed them, though the ground collapsed above Rama's former vessel, swallowing up soldiers and Sandstormers alike, and injuring Baal and Nur.

(Rise of Apocalypse#2) - Ozymandias was sole survivor of the collapse above. Nur healed from his wounds and became more powerful, while Baal perished soon after.
    Ozymandias told Rama that Nur had perished. Doubtful, Rama-Tut criticized Ozymandias for his failure to recover En Sabah Nur for him and ignored Logos' warnings that marrying Nephri would allow Ozymandias to manipulate him through her.
    After Nur escaped the collapsed chamber, he was found by Logos, sent their by Rama-Tut, who apparently had knowledge of the site of his emergence. Logos, intending for Nur to save Egypt from the horror of a royal consolidation of Rama-Tut and the house of Ozymandias, had Nur hide out within the pyramid project.

(West Coast Avengers II#20) - Stuck in the past with time machine that traveled only backwards (actually sent there by Rama's future self from the end of his second reign, circa 2920 BC), a West Coast branch of Avengers (Hawkeye, Iron Man, Tigra, Wonder Man) arrived in 2940 BC to try to convince the younger Rama to aid them, knowing his was more malicious at this age. No sooner had they arrived, however, when Rama blasted all four of them into paralysis with his Ultra-Diode Ray.

(West Coast Avengers II#21 / Captain America Annual#11/6 (fb)) - After bragging to the fallen heroes of his origins, Rama had his guards take them to the temples of the gods he had discredited, telling them to instruct the priests to bury them. The Avengers were brought into a temple of Khonshu, who spoke with Hawkeye, arranging to aid them so that they might aid in Rama's fall from power. Khonshu healed the wounded Hawkeye, and as part of the arrangement reached through time to the modern era, communicating their need to his agent there, Moon Knight (as he lacked the power to move them through time directly).

(Fantastic Four I#19 (fb) - BTS / Captain America Annual#11/6 (fb)) - Perhaps inspired by Khonshu into researching Egyptology, the early modern era's Mr. Fantastic interpreted some hieroglyphics as indicating a radioactive vial had cured a pharaoh of blindness.

(Fantastic Four I#19 - BTS) - Encouraged by this discovery, Reed led the Fantastic Four to travel back to Egypt circa 2940 BC.

(Fantastic Four I#19) - Rama-Tut used his Ultra-Diode Ray to neutralize the Fantastic Four's powers, and they were captured by Rama-Tut's soldiers.

(Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Deluxe Edition#10: Rama-Tut) - Nathaniel knew of the Fantastic Four from his ancestor's tapes.

(Doctor Strange#53 - BTS) - Some years later in the modern era, Sorcerer Supreme Dr. Stephen Strange traveled back to Egypt circa 2940 BC via the power of Nightmare, arriving shortly after the Fantastic Four. He came in search of a soul shard of Morgana Blessing that had been sent back progressively further in time along the line of her past incarnations, and Nightmare needed to aid him to prevent Morgana's spirit from reaching the birth of humanity and preventing mankind from dreaming. Strange detected power within the Sphinx and mystically located a portal. No sooner had Strange recognized the technology as being from the distant future than he was attacked by defense mechanisms which ultimately incapacitated him.

(West Coast Avengers II#21 - BTS) - Reviving, the Avengers were met by the Priests of Khonshu who offered to lead them through a tunnel to Rama's Sphinx.

(Doctor Strange#53 - BTS) - Dr. Strange's body was taken by Rama's robots towards a stasis chamber.

(West Coast Avengers II#22 / Captain America Annual#11/6 (fb)) - Guided to Rama-Tut's Sphinx by the Priests of Khonshu via their tunnel, the Avengers attacked the robots, hoping to free Dr. Strange that he might help them return to the future. While they battled those robots, however, four other robots conveyed Strange's body to the stasis chamber.

(Doctor Strange#53) - Moments before Strange's body was placed within a stasis field, he released his astral self.

(West Coast Avengers II#22) - As the four robots who had imprisoned Strange's body departed, the Avengers rushed in, but found they could not penetrate Rama's force field.

(Fantastic Four I#19 / Doctor Strange#53 / West Coast Avengers II#22) - The FF were brought before Rama-Tut. After Rama revealed his origins, Reed tried to steal his Ultra-Diode Ray, but Rama evaded his grasp and bathed the Four in a low-intensity ray that sapped their wills and made them his slaves. While he put the men to work -- Reed as a long-distance observer and a shield for his warriors, Human Torch as a court jester, and the Thing as a galley slave rowing a ship -- Rama planned to make Sue his queen.

(Doctor Strange#53) - Dr. Strange's astral self observed Rama's first meeting with the Fantastic Four.

(West Coast Avengers II#22 / Captain America Annual#11/6 (fb)) - The Avengers observed Rama's first meeting with the Fantastic Four. Hawkeye initially thought they had come in response to his efforts to send a message to them across time, but Iron Man realized this was the FF from years earlier than their own time. Nonetheless, they resolved to rescue the FF and use their time machine. They encountered the second group of Rama's robots and destroyed them.

(Doctor Strange#53) - Strange enlisted the aid of one of Rama's servants, who was Morgana's past self and hosted her soul shard.

(Rise of Apocalypse#3) - Hearing of uprisings among the slaves who had glimpsed Nur's power, Rama criticized Ozymandias for lying about Nur's death and commanded Ozymandias to find him amongst the slaves who hid him. Ozymandias noted that he had already had the involved slaves slaughtered, and that they did not hide him. Rama-Tut subsequently questioned Logos about the bandaged slave with whom he had been seen. Though Logos refused to divulge Nur's location even under torture, Rama reasoned that Nur would access Tut's Sphinx, and Ozymandias led troops to ambush him as he arrived there alongside Nephri.
    At a public gathering, Rama announced Nur to be his chosen heir and successor. When Rama instructed Nur to bow to him to show his respect, Nur refused. Rama unmasked Nur before everyone, showing his inhuman visage to all's shock...all save Rama-Tut, who used this to try to demonstrate their kinship. After Ozymandias had slain Logos, Rama again told Nur to swear loyalty to him, and gain his secrets and power and eventually inherit his rule, or defy him and be destroyed, along with all he cherished. In response, Nur attacked Rama, who incapacitated him with a blast from his ultra-diode ray. Instructing the people to witness how the he dealt with this supposed messenger from the gods, Nur ordered Nur's body to be dismembered and the parts scattered from Pelusium to Memphis.

(Rise of Apocalypse#4 (fb) - BTS) - Nur recovered and escaped.

(Rise of Apocalypse#4) - Rama-Tut ordered that Nur be found and terminated, or Ozymandias would be killed in turn.

(Fantastic Four I#19 / Doctor Strange#53 / Captain America Annual#11/6 (fb)) - Dr. Strange's astral self secretly focused the rays of the Egyptian sun into cosmic rays beamed at the Thing, who turned back into Ben Grimm. Unaffected by Rama's ray (which had been tuned to the Thing's form), Ben and was able to escape the Thing's shackles.

(Doctor Strange#53 / Fantastic Four I#19) - Unknowingly guided by Dr. Strange's astral self, Ben leapt overboard, commandeered a chariot, and rushed Rama's palace. There he ambushed Rama and took his Ultra-Diode Ray, using it to release Sue from its effects before he reverted to the Thing form and fell back under Rama's control. Unable to evade Rama as she couldn't turn her garments invisible, Sue used the Ray to free Johnny, and Rama fled through an escape panel to escape his fireballs.

(West Coast Avengers II#22) - As the Avengers rushed towards Rama's court via Rama's own tunnel, they accessed a chamber containing a large group of Rama's guards. As they battled the guards, Rama emerged from his escape panel on the opposite side of the tunnel.

(Fantastic Four I#19) - Sue released Ben from Rama's control via the ray, the trio fought their way past another group of Rama's guards.

(Fantastic Four I#19) - The other three FF members located and freed Reed as well.

(Doctor Strange#53) - Dr. Strange's astral self led Morgana's past incarnation to release his physical body from stasis, and his astral self re-merged with it. Rama, himself, came upon the pair; lacking the time to deal with this new intruder personally, Rama activated some defensive lasers, but Strange found the lasers didn't pursue him when he flew the servant in the opposite direction of Rama.

(Fantastic Four I#19) - The Fantastic Four tracked Rama via his tunnel to within his sphinx. Rama tried to drown them as they approached but they overcame the trap.

(West Coast Avengers II#22) - The Avengers returned to the tunnel after Rama had passed through it and located his chambers, finding them empty. They returned to the tunnel, saw the door to the Sphinx open again, and figured the FF had gone there.

(Rise of Apocalypse#4) - Nur returned and overpowered Ozymandias, exposing him to Rama-Tut's Memory Lock device.

(Fantastic Four I#19) - Rama fled from the FF via his now-repaired satellite globe into the future. He left his sphinx behind to mystify humanity.

(West Coast Avengers II#22) - Feeling the vibrations, the Avengers observed Rama's departure via monitor and rushed to locate the FF or Dr. Strange.

(Fantastic Four I#19) - The Fantastic Four located the optic nerve restorative.

(Rise of Apocalypse#4) - As Rama departed, Nur destroyed Rama's lab and its contents within the Sphinx.

(Fantastic Four I#19) - The FF felt rumblings within the Sphinx, reasoned that it was a booby-trap left by Rama, and fled to the surface, speculating that Rama might have been Doom's descendent or Doom himself.

(West Coast Avengers II#22) - The Avengers arrived within the chamber Rama had departed seconds after the FF's departure, and they were rocked by the explosion.

(Fantastic Four I#19 / West Coast Avengers II#22) - Nur's explosion destroyed Rama's equipment and eliminated any trace of its existence (leaving behind just the Sphinx itself and not harming the Avengers within it), and memory of his reign apparently faded from humanity upon his departure.

(Doctor Strange#53) - Dr. Strange took the servant outside of the Sphinx, liberated Morgana's soul shard, and returned to his own time.

(Fantastic Four I#19 / West Coast Avengers II#22) - As the Avengers emerged from the top of the Sphinx and rushed towards the FF, the FF returned to their time via their time machine, leaving the Avengers stranded and frustrated, having missed three opportunities.

(West Coast Avengers II#23 - BTS) - The Avengers battled Rama's capital's citizens, who were furious over his departure, but they eventually fled before the warriors' numbers, returning to the temple of Khonshu. The Priests sealed the temple from the angry warriors, noting how -- as they had been informed by Khonshu -- the Avengers' kept the robots away from Strange's sarcophagus long enough for Strange to help the FF escape Rama's control, which resulted in Rama's defeat. While he waited for his rescue via the message he had sent across the ages, Hawkeye carved a series of weapons for other Khonshu followers, the darts, boomerang, and throwing irons that the priests would later give to Moon Knight. Eventually, via the Fantastic Four's own time machine, Dr. Pym, Moon Knight, and la Espirata recovered the Avengers and returned them to their own time.

(Fantastic Four I#19) - Upon the FF's return to their time, Reed realized that the time machine had been unable to transport the radioactive materials with them, so they were unable to help Alicia's blindness.

(Avengers I#269 (fb)) - Rama had just finished shaving off his ceremonial beard when his ship ran into unexpected chronal turbulence that forced him to exit the time-stream in the modern era of Reality-616 shortly after the time the Fantastic Four had arrived.

(Fantastic Four Annual#2/2) - Arriving near Jupiter's orbit, Rama-Tut rescued Dr. Doom as he hurtled through space towards Jupiter.

(Avengers I#269 / Avengers Forever#9 (fb)) - Rama knew of Doom's battles with the Fantastic Four from his ancestor's history tapes, and he both admired and feared Doom. With Doom disoriented from his ordeal in space, Rama fed him misinformation in the event that he might someday need Doom as an ally.

(Fantastic Four Annual#2/2) - After hearing Doom's  history with the Fantastic Four, Rama speculated that they must have met for a reason and noted that Doom (creator of his time machine) was allegedly his ancestor. Doom, in turn speculated that perhaps he was not Rama's ancestor, but instead his predecessor, using the time machine of his design to travel to the future and become him...or that Rama had traveled into the recent past and become Doom. While Rama pretended to seek to unite against the Fantastic Four, Doom opined that they should not risk this, since, as possibly being the same person, if one perished, the other would as well. Convinced, Rama sent Doom back to Earth while he would head to the future.

(Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z Vol. 6: Kang) - Damaged by the time storm, Rama's time machine skipped several years into the future and crashed in Egypt.

(Fantastic Four: Foes#1) - Rama briefly attended a meeting held by the Puppet Master, who proposed an alliance to defeat the Fantastic Four. Before Rama and all the others declined and departed, a device of the Mad Thinker took cell samples of everyone present.

(Cable#57 (fb) - BTS / Cable#21 - BTS) - Years after his encounter with Doom, Rama-Tut traveled to the site of his old Sphinx and Pyramids. Unable to repair his time machine's control module, he decided to capture the time traveling mutant Blacquesmith. He assaulted Blacquesmith, demanding information on Cable.

(Cable#57 (fb) - BTS / Cable#32 - voice only) - Rama-Tut ambushed Blacquesmith again and abducted him, noting that he had studied his student (Cable) and knew that he could not survive the obstacles before him without Blacquesmith there to help him.

(Cable#57 (fb)) - Rama-Tut tried to force Blacquesmith's assistance via torture.

(Cable#54 - BTS / Cable#55 - BTS) - Imprisoned by Rama-Tut, Blacquesmith sought to contact Cable. Blacquesmith projected a mental image that was observed by Irene Merryweather.

(Cable#56 - BTS) - Blacquesmith contacted Cable, reprimanding him for failing to focus on his mission against Apocalypse.

(Cable#57) - Blacquesmith contacted his ally Cable, who came to his assistance. As Rama battled Cable, a psychic disturbance across the astral plane (caused by a trap set by the Shadow King and set off by Psylocke/Betsy Braddock) virtually incapacitated Cable, removing his telepathy and limiting his telekinesis. Rama battered his helpless foe, but was distracted when the chamber trembled from damage that had occurred due to chronal forces unleashed by Rama's module, and Cable grabbed his Ultra-Diode Gun, blasted Rama with it, and then punched him out.
    As Cable and Blacquesmith fled the growing chronal distortion, Rama returned to his control module, and the temporal feedback caused by the chronal distortion launched him into the timestream again.

(Avengers Annual#2 (fb) / Captain America Annual#11/6 (fb)) - Rama first traveled to the alternate Earth-689, where, as the Scarlet Centurion, he manipulated that world's Avengers to imprison all other superhumans. Apparently influenced by Immortus, he summoned Earth-616's Avengers to defeat Earth-689's, but the Avengers-616 defeated him and banished him into the timestream.

(Avengers Annual#2 / Captain America Annual#11/6 (fb)) - This banishment diverged the Scarlet Centurion into two beings, with one traveling to Earth-712's future to rule it, while the other divergent returning to his Rama-Tut aspect and resolving to head back to his own time.

(Avengers I#8 (fb) / Captain America Annual#11/6 (fb) / Avengers I#269 / Avengers Forever#9 (fb)) - Intending to return to his own era (31st century Earth-6311), due to a timestorm Rama overshot his mark and landed in its war-torn 40th or 41st century (approximately 4000 AD). Finding the technology even greater than his own era's but noting that the warriors no longer knew how their weapons worked, Rama locked himself in an abandoned scientific complex and mastered an arsenal in a matter of hours. Inspired by Doom, he designed a new battlesuit and became Kang the Conqueror.

See OHotMU entries for further information as Rama-Tut became the Scarlet Centurion, then Kang, as well as Victor Timely, then Rama-Tut again.


(Giant-Size Avengers#2 (fb) / Avengers Forever#9 (fb)) - As he approached his sixtieth year, Kang, exhausted by administration over Chronopolis, a tangled empire that stole his every waking moment, considered that he had made his life a void.

(Giant-Size Avengers#2 (fb) / Avengers Forever#9 (fb)) - Kang turned rule of Chronopolis over to Ravonna and returned to ancient Egypt circa 2937 BC (three years after he had left it) where he was again likened to a god as Pharaoh Rama-Tut. He smashed his chrono-sphere and returned to his people, who were boisterously joyful at beholding him again, after his banishment at the hands of the "blue demons."

(Giant-Size Avengers#2 (fb) / Avengers Forever#9 (fb)) - As Rama-Tut, he ruled with the virtue he had previously loathed most: compassion. He spent ten years basking in his people's adulation.

(Marvel Universe: The End#2 / (Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z Vol. 6: Kang) - Rendered virtually all-powerful by the Heart of the Infinite, Akhenaten captured and imprisoned Rama-Tut, alongside Kang, Immortus, the Time-Keepers, the Timekeeper, Zarrko the Tomorrow Man, Dr. Doom and a few others I'm not sure about (maybe Nathaniel Richards +/- Korvac). After Thanos merged with the Heart of the Infinite and then went back in time and prevented Akhenaten from obtaining the Heart's power in reality-616, the time-travelers' captures were diverged to Reality-4321, and they escaped at some point, returning to their own eras.

(Avengers Forever#9 (fb)) - Despite the joy of his rule, Rama was frequently plagued by thoughts that he would one day become Immortus.

(Giant-Size Avengers#2 (fb)) - At seventy years old he finally felt fulfilled.

(Giant-Size Avengers#2 (fb) / Avengers Forever#9 (fb)) - Until he began to remember his past actions as Kang. He made a decision to oppose his past self's actions in the fruitless assault on the Celestial Madonna, as well as to break the cycle of becoming Immortus.
    Knowing from his past at Kang that he had defeated his elder self (Rama), he still resolved that he needed to oppose Kang to prevent his gaining the Madonna; he further hoped to change what had occurred and free himself from the inevitable.

.(Giant-Size Avengers#2 (fb)) - Lacking a time machine, Rama told his incredulous court wizard, Shamaz, of his plan to enter suspended animation until the modern era. It took Rama and Shamaz seven years to make this dream a reality.

(MK 4#16 (fb) - BTS) <2925 BC> - On Ramades' 20th birthday, he found his father's time-traveling gizmos and decided to split.

(MK 4#16 (fb) - BTS) - Ramades first visited the Oracle of Siwa (a Time-Keeper exiled there by He Who Remains), seeking the right time to conquer the Age of Heroes, as his father had never been able to. Seeking the right moment, the Oracle helped him to select a time when Kang was "sailing the infinite seas of space" and the Avengers had been "smashed to pieces."

(Giant-Size Avengers#2 (fb)) <2920 BC> - Rama designed an air-sealed sarcophagus, in which he would be placed, to awaken only when oxygen once more touched his lips. This would only occur when the case was opened, which would only occur when sun fell across its face. Remembering the Swordsman entrance into the Pyramid of Rama-Tut during the Celestial Madonna affair, Rama had a series of mirrors placed to reflect light on the case's face when the Swordsman opened the chamber.

(West Coast Avengers II#20) - Stuck in the 18th century with a time machine that would only go backwards in time, a West Coast Avengers contingent (Hawkeye, Iron Man, Tigra, Wonder Man) flew to Egypt and traveled back to 2920 BC to enlist the older, more benevolent Rama's aid. They were beset by Egyptian warriors until the fight was broken up by Shamaz, who upon hearing their plans, told them that Rama had already begun preparations to enter suspended animation, and that he would not need to do so if he remembered how to repair a time machine. Unable to stop the heroes, Shamaz directed them to Rama, who was already in deep trance. At Hawkeye's urging, Rama directed them to find his younger self from his first reign, then passed out completely. The four Avengers then traveled back further in time to 2940 BC.

.(Giant-Size Avengers#2 (fb) / Avengers Forever#9 (fb)) <2920 BC> - Rama seemingly died, and Shamaz placed him in the sarcophagus as planned, while his people mourned his death.

(Avengers I#129 / Fantastic Four Annual#25/5) - When Kang made base in the Pyramid of Rama-Tut in his plot to acquire the Celestial Madonna, Agatha Harkness led the Swordsman (Jacques DuQuesne) there, and he unwittingly freed the vampire Amenhotep, who attacked him. When Egyptian guards came to investigate, Amenhotep turned on them instead and eventually knocked one of them out into the sunlight, where he apparently disintegrated. The Swordsman, meanwhile, inadvertently opened the passage into Rama-Tut's tomb, which shone light on Rama's sarcophagus, causing it to open and revive Rama. He then confronted the Swordsman, stopping him from killing Kang, as Rama believed this would result in his own death, as well.

(Giant-Size Avengers#2 (fb) - BTS / Fantastic Four Annual#25/5) - Rama accompanied Swordsman to Avengers Mansion. As the Swordsman's ship had been shot down in the previous issue, it seems likely that Rama-Tut transported them both their via teleportation.

(Giant-Size Avengers#2 / Fantastic Four Annual#25/5 // Avengers Forever#9 (fb)) - Rama encountered Hawkeye, offering the means to defeat Kang. Hawkeye knew Rama was Kang's predecessor, but Rama assured him he would do what is necessary to stop Kang, though he refused to divulge the specifics. Disguised, Rama transported Hawkeye and Swordsman to the United Nations building, where he informed them that this Macrobot was a robot holding captive the Vision and using him as a power source. Armed with this information, Hawkeye prevented the Macrobot's access to solar energy, which drained the Vision's power and caused the Macrobot to collapse. 
    Rama then transported Hawkeye, Swordsman, and the Vision to Peking where they defeated Kang's next Macrobot, freeing Iron Man. With Iron Man's aid, the Avengers destroyed the third and final Macrobot that Kang sent, freeing Thor. The Vision, meanwhile, freed Kang's female hostages.
    Kang himself then appeared and blasted the disguise off of Rama, exposing his true identity. After Rama had explained his reasons, Kang was furious and denied that his own future self would ever oppose him thusly. Kang decided that if he couldn't have the Madonna, then no one could, and he blasted at Mantis. Having futilely hoped he could convince Kang to give up his mad ambitions, Rama reacted too late to stop this, and the Swordsman leapt in front of Mantis, saving her and dying in her place. Distraught that he had failed to stop Kang from killing Swordsman, Rama attacked Kang, and their struggle activated Kang's time sphere, transporting them into the timestream.

(Avengers I#131 / Fantastic Four Annual#25/5) - Rama and Kang fought as Kang's miniature time sphere floated in the midst of a time vortex. Rama was suddenly struck unconscious by a blast from Immortus who brought both Rama and Kang to Limbo, imprisoned Rama, and proposed an alliance with Kang. Inspired by Rama's efforts to never follow his path, Kang vowed to focus solely on conquest. Upon awakening, Rama watched helplessly as Kang used Immortus equipment to summon his Legion of the Unliving, then bring the Avengers to Limbo, and finally to imprison Immortus as well, since he no longer needed him, all part of his plot to recover Mantis, the Celestial Madonna.

(Avengers I#132) - Imprisoned side-by-side with Immortus, Rama-Tut criticized Immortus for his alliance with Kang and noted that fates were set and unchangeable.

(Giant-Size Avengers#3 / Fantastic Four Annual#25/5) - After Hawkeye freed Immortus and Rama, Immortus restored the Legion of the Unliving to their proper places in time. Rama announced that he had accomplished his mission of preventing Kang from plunging all of time into chaos in his mad quest for the Celestial Madonna. Rama bade the Avengers farewell, cryptically told Mantis "To thine own self be true," and then departed.
    After his departure, Immortus revealed to the Avengers that he was Rama's future self.

(Avengers Forever#9 (fb)) - Rama-Tut departed via time travel equipment borrowed from Immortus.

(Avengers Forever#9 (fb)) - Overwhelmed by a sensation of powerless and failure, the 77 year old Rama walked the centuries, re-experiencing the sweep of his accomplishments.


(Avengers Forever#9 (fb)) - Everything seemed meaningless, as if everything he had done had been fated, and that he had had no choice. Resigned to his fate, Rama approached Limbo.

(Thor I#282 (fb)) - In the twilight of his earthly years, Rama-Tut decided to thwart death's impending embrace by sequestering himself forever in ageless Limbo. He intended to spend eternity there furthering his studies of time. Using laborers salvaged from his earlier existence, he built an immense castle. Proclaiming himself lord of Limbo and Master of Time, he donned his final regalia and assumed the identity of Immortus.

(Avengers Forever#9 (fb)) - Glimpsing a Limbo chrono-flash of Immortus agreeing to serve the Time-Keepers, a Rama diverged who refused to be such a servant, and he returned to his role of Kang, vowing to avoid his destiny of becoming Immortus.

Comments: Created by Stan Lee, Jack Kirby, and Dick Ayers.

    Differences between the history of Other-Earth and Earth-616, as well as differing calendars in different realms, and damage to records during periods of massive warring, have led to some inconsistency in the dating of the time periods of both Kang and Ravonna.
In FF Annual#2, Rama refers to himself as being from the 25th century. While I can explain away the other contradictory temporal references, this one just seems like an error to me.

    At some point, Nathaniel Richards-616 (father of Reed Richards) was hinted to be the father of Kristoff Vernard, Doom's temporary successor, which presumably accounts for records listing Dr. Doom as Rama-Tut's ancestor.

    The Rise of Apocalypse series has a lot of interesting new information on Rama-Tut, but the chronology is off a bit. Rama is supposed to have spent only 10 years in Egypt during his first reign, and that Baal is supposed to have found the infant En Sabah Nur soon after...but En Sabah Nur is 17 years old when he first encounters Rama during his first reign. The error presumably occurs because Rama's second reign was 17 years.
    Perhaps Baal found the young En Sabah Nur at least 7 years before he found Rama. Or Baal was lying about having found Rama, or misremembering details?

    GS Avengers#2 stated that part of Kang's decision to return to the Rama-Tut role was that he had never regained Ravonna...though later stories had him regain Ravonna (as the Terminatrix), and he was ruling beside her in Chronopolis when he decided to return to his role as Rama as shown in Avengers Forever#9. Perhaps this can be interpreted as meaning he had never regained the Ravonna he wanted, as the Terminatrix had developed different personality traits than her younger, more innocent self, due to her life's experiences.

    My notes (perhaps based on the OHotMU Deluxe Edition, or perhaps via common error) had Rama-Tut first arriving in Egypt in 2950 BC, ruling for ten years, and departing in 2940 BC...then returning again in 2930 BC and ruling for another 10 years before entering suspending animation in 2920 BC. However, Giant-Size Avengers#2 notes that he ruled them with virtue for 10 years and was happy...but then that he took another 7 years preparing the means for his suspended animation...which would make it 17 years, not just 10. West Coast Avengers#20 shows him entering suspended animation in 2920 BC after having completed 17 years of his second reign, so me must have returned in 2937, not 2930. Missing that additional seven years notation led to the Kang and Immortus and the Deluxe Edition Rama-Tut OHotMU entries being in error on that point.

    The Master Edition Rama-Tut entry identifies Nathaniel's previously unidentified son as Nathaniel Jr.

    The time from Rama's first meeting with the FF to their eventual liberation from his control had to have taken less than 24 hours, as that was the length of time Strange's astral self could remain separated from his body before his body died.

According to THE BOOK OF THE DEAD by E.A. Wallis Budge, Dover Publications, Inc., New York(1967), RAMA-TUT is ancient Egyptian for "Ra Like Image" or " Ra Like Figure" or "Ra Like Form"  or "Ra like Statue".
---MA with a dot over the A means "Like"( page 139 ), TUT( Image--page 139;Figure--page 142; Statue--page 215;Form(?)--page 175 ).
Since TUTANKHAMEN means "Living Image Of Amen" I'm confident in my translations of Rama-Tut.
--John Holstein           

    All pharaohs by the name of Amenhotep (including Akhenaten) reigned over 1000 years after Rama-Tut in the real world. There is still the possibility of an Amenhotep ruling before Rama-Tut because much information from the first dynasty of Egypt, which was the time of Rama-Tut's reign, is still disputed. In this case Amenhotep would be the vampire last seen as a member of one of Grim Reaper's Legion of the Unliving.
--Markus Raymond
    It would fit quite nicely if the Amenhotep that became the vampire was the Pharaoh that Rama conquered and usurped his rule. Alternatively, it's also possible the First Reign Rama tested his time travel equipment, abducted one of the latter Amenhotep's and brought him back to 2950-2940 BC where he was vampirized and trapped in the Pyramid of Rama-Tut.

  Rama-Tut's predecessor in the Marvel Universe was Amenhotep, but he can't be Nephri's father because Nephri clearly remembered the circumstances of her father's death and Ozymandias probably wouldn't have worked for Rama-Tut if he had put his daddy into a pyramid to die their. Maybe Amenhotep was the one that took the power from her family and this was the reason why Ozymandias "happily" served Rama-Tut.

Profile by Snood.

Rama-Tut has numerous divergent alternate dimensional counterparts of himself, as well as of his various incarnations, the relationships to which are discussed in history. However, he should be distinguished from:

images: (without ads)
Rise of Apocalypse#2, p11, panel 1 - good image of Rama-Tut's sphinx
Avengers Forever? - cross-section of Sphinx - p25, panel 3 - elder Rama vs. Kang
Rama's robots, Dr. Strange#53, p8, panel 4

other robots - West Coast Avengers II#22, p7, panel 2 - carrying Dr. Strange
Kang second page image - with Ultra-Diode Ray - can crop out legs and right arm, showing only his head (and headdress), torso, and entire left arm and ray gun - art by Paul Ryan from Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z Vol. 6

Fantastic Four I#19 (October, 1963) - Stan Lee (writer/editor), Jack Kirby (penciler), Dick Ayers (inker)
Fantastic Four Annual#2/2 (1964) - Stan Lee (writer/editor), Jack Kirby (pencils), Chic Stone (inks)
Avengers I#8 (September, 1964) - Stan Lee (writer/editor), Jack Kirby (penciles, Dick Ayers (inks)
Avengers Annual#2 (September, 1968) - Roy Thomas (writer), Don Heck (penciler), Werner Roth, and Vince Colletta (inker), Stan Lee (editor)
Avengers I#129 (November, 1974) - Steve Englehart (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Joe Staton (inker), Roy Thomas (editor)
Giant-Size Avengers#2 (November, 1974) - Steve Englehart (writer), Dave Cockrum (artist), Roy Thomas (editor)
Avengers I#131 (January, 1975) - Steve Englehart (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Joe Staton (inker), Roy Thomas (editor)
Avengers I#132 (February, 1975) - Steve Englehart (plot), Roy Thomas (script, editor), Sal Buscema (penciler), Joe Staton (inker)
Giant-Size Avengers#3 (February, 1975) - Steve Englehart (plot), Roy Thomas (script, editor), Dave Cockrum (penciler), Joe Giella (inker)
Doctor Strange#53 (1982) - Roger Stern (writer), Marshall Rogers (penciler), Terry Austin (inker), Al Milgrom (editor)
Avengers I#269 (June, 1986) - Roger Stern (writer), John Buscema (breakdowns), Tom Palmer (finished art), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
West Coast Avengers II#20-21 (May-June, 1987) - Steve Englehart (writer), Al Milgrom (layouts), Joe Sinnott (finishes), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
West Coast Avengers II#22 (July, 1987) - Steve Englehart (writer), Al Milgrom (layouts), Kim DeMulder (finishes), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
West Coast Avengers II#23 (August, 1987) - Steve Englehart (writer), Al Milgrom (layouts), Romeo Tanghal (finishes), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Captain America Annual#11/6 (1992) - Peter Sanderson (writer), Rich Yanizeski (penciler), Fred Fredericks (inker), Pat Garrahy (assistant editor), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Fantastic Four Annual#25/5 (1992) - Peter Sanderson (writer), Rich Yanizeski (penciler), Ray Kryssing (inker), Pat Garrahy (assistant editor), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Killpower: The Early Years#1-2 (September-October, 1993) - Mike Barr (writer), John Ross (penciler), Martin Griffiths (inker), Jacqui Papp (editor)
Cable#21 (July, 1995) - Jeph Loeb (writer), Arnie Jorgensen (penciler), Mark Pennington (inker), Lisa Patrick (editor)
Cable#32 (June, 1996) - Jeph Loeb (writer), Ian Churchill (breakdowns), Scott Hanna (finishes), Mark Powers (editor)
Rise of Apocalypse#1 (October, 1996) - Terry Kavanaugh (writer), Adam Pollina (penciler), Mark Morales & Harry Candelario (inkers), Mark Powers (editor)
Rise of Apocalypse#2-3 (November-December, 1996) - Terry Kavanaugh & James Felder (writers), Adam Pollina (penciler), Mark Morales (inker), Mark Powers (editor)
Rise of Apocalypse#4 (January, 1997) - Terry Kavanaugh & James Felder (writers), Adam Pollina & Anthony Williams (pencilers), Mark Morales & Al Milgrom (inkers), Mark Powers (editor)
Cable#54 (May, 1998) - Joe Casey (writer), Ladronn (penciler), Juan Vlasco (inker), Mark Powers (editor)
Cable#55 (June, 1998) - Joe Casey (writer), Ladronn (penciler), Juan Vlasco & Keith Aiken (inker), Mark Powers (editor)
Cable#56 (July, 1998) - Joe Casey (writer), Ryan Benjamin (penciler), Matt Banning, w/ Scott Hanna, Keith Aiken, & Jon Holdredge (inkers), Mark Powers (editor)
Cable#57 (August, 1998) - Joe Casey (writer), Rhan Benjamin (penciler), Scott Hanna w/ Banning & Holdredge (inkers), Mark Powers (editor)
Avengers Forever#9 (August 1999) - Kurt Busiek & Roger Stern (writers), Carlos Pacheco (pencils), Jesus Merino (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Marvel Universe: The End#2 (May, 2003) - by Jim Starlin (writer/penciler), Al Milgrom (inker), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Fantastic Four: Foes#1 (March, 2005) - Robert Kirkman (writer), Cliff Rathburn (artist); Andy Schmidt, Nicole Wiley, & Molly Lazer (assistant editors), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Marvel Knights 4 #16 (May, 2005) - Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa (writer), Jim Muniz (penciler), Jim Royal and Derek Fridolfs (inker), Warren Simons (editor)

First posted: 07/17/2009
Last updated: 04/19/2020

Any Additions/Corrections? please let me know.

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