Real Name: Vanessa Marianna Fisk

Identity/Class: Human

Occupation: Former leader of New York's mobs (briefly)

Group Membership: Former leader of New York's mobs

Affiliations: Julius (her servant);
    formerly served by the Kingpin's men (especially Waldo Dini, Hymie, Jocko, Walter);
    Dr. Paul Mondat;
Answer, Daredevil, Heidi DeVoto, Alton Lennox, Lily Lucca, Matador (unidentified), Schemer (Richard Fisk), Spider-Man, Stilt-Man (and other unspecified former colleagues of the Kingpin), Tombstone, Dr. Zachar; various pawns

EnemiesBruno, Daredevil, Henry Dobbs, Leland Drummond, Richard Fisk, King of the Sewers, Lynch, Owl, Punisher (Castle), Sammy Silke, Spider-Man, Micah Synn, Dr. Zachar

Known Relatives: Wilson Fisk (husband), Richard Fisk (son, deceased)

Aliases: Mrs. K (K for Kingpin)

Base of Operations: Formerly a mansion in Zurich, Switzerland;
    formerly Fisk Tower, Manhattan;
    formerly Japan

First Appearance: (Mentioned) Amazing Spider-Man I#69 (February, 1969);
    (Off-panel) Amazing Spider-Man I#70 (March, 1969);
    (On-panel) Amazing Spider-Man I#83 (April, 1970)

Powers/Abilities: Vanessa has no powers. She is competent in the use of firearms, though she rarely does so.

For most of her appearances, she sought to minimize the Kingpin's violence and turn him from his life of crime. However, she can be bloodthirsty, vengeful, scheming, and manipulative in the right situation.

Height: 5'8"    Weight: 125 lbs.    Eyes: Blue    Hair: Black with white streaks

(Marvel Graphic Novel: Daredevil: Love and War) - Vanessa, who appeared to be only fifteen, was brought before Wilson Fisk by his band of petty thieves, to be used as chattel (personal property). Though she was lost, afraid, and amnesiac, Fisk saw her natural grace, her depth in spirit. He saw in her the object of every lonely dream he'd ever had.

(Marvel Knights Encyclopedia/Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe, Deluxe Edition#7: Kingpin/) - Vanessa was less than twenty years old when she married Fisk, who though quite young had been a criminal leader for over a decade at this point.

(Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe, Deluxe Edition#7: Kingpin) - Their son Richard was born within one year of their marriage.

(Web of Spider-Man#86 (fb)) - When Richard was a youth, Vanessa tried to shield him from the life his father led.

(Daredevil II#30 (fb)) - Vanessa tried to calm Wilson as he grabbed Richard calling his son weak, pathetic, and an embarrassment.

(Web of Spider-Man#86 (fb)) - Though Vanessa loved Wilson, the love she poured into their relationship seemed to drain her life. Her health had begun to deteriorate when she sent Richard off to school in Europe.

(Marvel Knights Encyclopedia/Amazing Spider-Man I#85 (fb) - BTS) - Wilson eventually became the Kingpin of Crime, about two decades after marrying Vanessa.

(Amazing Spider-Man I#83 (fb) - BTS) - Richard had remained in Europe after college, when reports of his disappearance (and apparent death) made it into the newspapers. There was a note left addressed to his father. Both to shield Vanessa and out of denial, Wilson concealed the information from Vanessa.

(Amazing Spider-Man I#69 - BTS) - One of the Kingpin's agents jokingly mentioned that the Kingpin wasn't scared of anybody--except his missus. The Kingpin punched the man and terminated his employment, telling him that no one was to mention his wife, and that the man was lucky that he let him live.

(Amazing Spider-Man I#70) - When the Kingpin was caught between Spider-Man and the police, Vanessa pulled up in her car and enabled him to escape.

(Amazing Spider-Man I#84 (fb) - BTS) - Wilson told Vanessa that he was bringing the violence of his life to an end.

(Amazing Spider-Man I#83) - Vanessa discovered reports of Richard's disappearance and confronted Wilson with the information. She told him that Richard had committed suicide after learning of his father's true nature.

(Amazing Spider-Man I#84) - Vanessa overheard the Kingpin plotting to kill his rival, the Schemer. She accused him of lying about ending the violence, and she told him that whatever enemies he had no longer mattered after what had happened to Richard.
    Later, when the Schemer confronted the Kingpin in his home, Vanessa came between the two, hoping to stop her husband from killing them. However, as soon as she looked into the Schemer's eyes, she recognized him as Richard.

(Amazing Spider-Man I#84 - BTS/85(fb)) - When Spider-Man arrived and fought the Kingpin, Vanessa helped the Schemer escape out a secret passage.

(Amazing Spider-Man I#85) - Vanessa lied to Wilson, claiming she had just hidden from the violence, but Spider-Man's pictures revealed the truth to him. He confronted her as a traitor, but she told him she could not reveal her reasons. The Schemer later revealed his true identity to the Kingpin, causing him to lapse into an inert state of shock. Vanessa rushed to his side, her suspicions confirmed. Spider-Man left the three in peace.

(Captain America I#147 (fb)) - Vanessa and Richard had the Kingpin sent to an institution to restore his mind. After a period of time lapsed with no progress, Richard, who had come to lead a faction of HYDRA, had his father taken from the institution to HYDRA headquarters. There Richard used a hyper-shock treatment he'd developed, though the effects were not immediately apparent. Wilson was taken back to his home to recover.

(Captain America I#145-147- BTS) - The Kingpin recovered and took over HYDRA, as Richard had intended.

(Captain America I#147) - As the Kingpin prepared to detonate a bomb that would destroy a HYDRA faction, Vanessa pleaded with him not to do it. He ignored her requests, but the delay allowed him to see the unmasking of the faction's leader, as Richard. Wilson and Vanessa watched as Richard's faction was defeated by SHIELD's Femme Force.

(Captain America I#148 - BTS) - The Kingpin and Richard were both revealed as pawns of the Red Skull, and Richard was nearly killed in the ensuing conflict.

(Amazing Spider-Man I#164) - As the Kingpin prepared to drain the life of Spider-Man to revive Richard, Vanessa pleaded with him not to do so, telling him that Richard would not want to live at the expense of someone else's life. After the Kingpin ignored her advice and revived Richard, Vanessa took Richard away to talk.
    However, Spider-Man recovered enough to reclaim his life energy. The Kingpin attacked Spider-Man, and Vanessa commanded his husband's agents to shoot Spider-Man. The Kingpin fell to his seeming death during the fight, but Vanessa allowed Spider-Man to leave in peace as Richard had possessed his energies long enough to begin his own road to recovery).

(Amazing Spider-Man I#197 (fb)) - After the Kingpin recovered, Vanessa convinced him to retire from his life of crime. She gave him an ultimatum of 24 hours to put his affairs in order and then the two would leave for Japan, or else she would leave him forever.

(Amazing Spider-Man I#197) - Desperate for final revenge, the Kingpin attacked Spider-Man. Successfully defeating his foe, the Kingpin prepared to kill him at the stroke of midnight, but Vanessa arrived, telling him his time up. Reluctantly, he put down his weapon, declaring his love for Vanessa.

(Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe, Deluxe Edition#7: Kingpin) - Vanessa and Wilson retired to Japan.

(Daredevil II#92 (fb) - BTS) - Wilson taught Vanessa chess, but she swiftly learned how to play and, since she knew Wilson better than he knew himself, she eventually had to let him win.

(Daredevil I#170 (fb) - BTs) - Vanessa persuaded the reluctant Wilson to turn over all of his files on the activities of leaders of organized crime to American legal authorities

(Daredevil I#170) - Vanessa happened by one of Wilson's workout sessions, forcing him to stop taking out his frustrations on his employees. She introduced Wilson to Mr. Harrison of the US Attorney General's office, after which she flew to New York to acquire the legal services of Nelson & Murdock. However, the leaders of the Kingpin's former syndicate learned of this and sought to stop this from happening. They had an agent, Bruno, assault the meeting between Vanessa and her lawyers. While Daredevil stopped Bruno, Vanessa was kidnapped by the other criminals while he was occupied. The Kingpin returned to the US to recover Vanessa.

(Daredevil I#171) - Vanessa pleaded with her captors, warning them that they were putting the entire city in deadly peril. Ignoring her, they made an arrangement for a simple trade: Vanessa for the Kingpin's files. The Kingpin met them at the arranged construction site, but he used a high-pitched sonic device to incapacitate his enemies. He rushed to rescue Vanessa--telling her that they would return to Japan to live out their lives in peace. However, one of the Kingpin's aides, Lynch, who correctly recognized Vanessa as the only obstacle preventing Fisk from returning to crime, launched a mortar that collapsed the building on them. Though stunned, the Kingpin recovered, though Vanessa was nowhere to be found. Lynch counselled the Kingpin that he needed to avenge Vanessa.

(Daredevil I#172) - In the sewers below the collapsed building, Vanessa awakened, concussed and amnesiac. She wandered the sewers, seeking food.

(Daredevil I#179) - The homeless and still amnesiac Vanessa was photographed by Ben Urich as she wandered the streets of New York and then returned to the sewers.

(Daredevil I#180) - Vanessa was among the group of homeless people who came under the dominion of the King of the Sewers. After the death of his "Queen," the King picked another queen: Vanessa. Urich, suspecting the woman he had seen was Vanessa, led Daredevil into the sewers, where he defeated the King and brought Vanessa back to the surface.
    Meanwhile, the Kingpin had retaken control of the mobs, slain Lynch for his actions, and placed his agent Randolph Cherryh as the next mayor of New York City. However, Daredevil confronted the Kingpin, showed him that he had Vanessa's ring, and insisted that he remove Cherryh from office if he wanted her back. The Kingpin acquiesced.

(Daredevil I#186) - The Kingpin's doctors worked on trying to cure Vanessa, to no avail.

(Spectacular Spider-Man II#82) - The drug addled Punisher assaulted the Kingpin in his home. When the dazed Vanessa heard the commotion and stumbled into the room, the Punisher took her hostage. Enraged, the Kingpin managed to free Vanessa and beat the Punisher senseless, leaving him for the police in deference to getting Vanessa to safety.

(Daredevil I#211 - BTS) - Knowing that his enemy Micah Synn might seek to attack him through Vanessa, the Kingpin hired actress Heidi DeVoto to impersonate Vanessa. Heidi (as Vanessa) was abducted by agents of Micah, and she was killed while trying to help Becky Blake to escape from the intended sacrifice to Micah's god, Mow.
    The Kingpin revealed the truth to Daredevil, who joined forces with him against Synn.

(Spectacular Spider-Man II#94 - BTS) - While the Kingpin's scientists began the process of resurrecting the cyborg Silvermane, the Kingpin became lost in thought about the gravely ill Vanessa.

(Spectacular Spider-Man II#95) - The Kingpin visited Vanessa as she lay unresponsive in her hospital bed. Later, the Kingpin's agent, the Answer, determined that the light energy of the vigilante Dagger might prove able to cure Vanessa. The Kingpin instructed him to abduct Dagger, though she had been markedly weakened by energy drained from her by Silvermane.

(Spectacular Spider-Man II#96) - The Answer sacrificed his own life energy to restore Dagger, who neutralized the drain from Silvermane, but refused to donate any of her excess energy to help the Kingpin's wife. Furious, the Kingpin blamed Spider-Man and the Black Cat for their interference in his plans; he took Vanessa from his devastated stronghold.

(Spectacular Spider-Man II#100) - The Kingpin wondered if Dr. Ohnn's research might bear fruit in investigating Cloak's powers, in hopes that they might learn about Dagger's abilities. Later, he visited Vanessa in her bed. She revived briefly and spoke to him, but as she began to recall her trauma in the sewers, she became extremely distraught and required sedation. The Kingpin later took his revenge on Spider-Man and the Black Cat by driving the couple to break up.

(Web of Spider-Man#2) - As the Kingpin watched over Vanessa, he received notice that the Vulturions would be trying to impress him by assassinating Vanessa right outside his window. Vanessa had made some progress, smiling as an old movie was being shown, but she became disturbed by the sight of violence outside her window. The Kingpin was thankful when Spider-Man ended the conflict, and he replaced a hat (a present for Aunt May), that Spider-Man had lost in the melee.

(Marvel Graphic Novel: Daredevil: Love and War) - On their twentieth wedding anniversary, the Kingpin became desperate to save Vanessa. He made a generous offer to French(?) pyschiatrist/psychologist Dr. Paul Mondat to come to New York to treat Vanessa. However, after Mondat arrived, the Kingpin had his agent Victor kidnap Mondat's wife Cheryl. The Kingpin hoped that having Mondat's wife would inspire Mondat's passion to recover Vanessa in order to save his own wife as quickly as possible. However, while Mondat did bring Vanessa extensive recovery, he also made her loyal and dependent on him. When the stuporous Vanessa asked Mondat to help her escape from Wilson--which the Kingpin saw over his monitor--Fisk knew he had lost her. Daredevil had rescued Cheryl Mondat, and the Kingpin gave Mondat a blank check on a bottomless bank account to finance the completion of Vanessa's treatment. The Mondats and Vanessa departed for Europe, where Vanessa would receive a new identity in Europe.

(Amazing Spider-Man I#288 (fb) - BTS) - The Kingpin learned of a plan to kill Vanessa. He thus had her returned to New York while he personally dealt with her would-be killers in Eurpe. He gave Vanessa's physician, Dr. Zachar, instructions to keep Vanessa sedated to prevent others from being shocked by her sudden return.

(Amazing Spider-Man I#285) - In the midst of a gang war during the Kingpin's absence, Richard Fisk visited his mother, who didn't even recognize him.

(Amazing Spider-Man I#286) - Richard again visited Vanessa, who recognized him this time. Dr. Zachar told Richard that her mental status waxed and waned, but after Richard had left, the doctor scolded Vanessa for her behavior and increased Vanessa's medication.

(Amazing Spider-Man I#288) - The Kingpin, having dealt with the threat and returned to New York, confronted Dr. Zachar, killing him for frightening his wife. The Kingpin then had Vanessa returned to Europe.

(Daredevil I#317) - In Europe, Vanessa learned of the fall of the Kingpin. Monday counseled her to not get involved with him, though she did she tears on his behalf.

(Daredevil II#29) - Learning of the betrayal and near killing of the Kingpin, orchestrated by Sammy Silke and Richard Fisk, Vanessa returned to the US to take revenge and to make sure that her husband was cared for. The Kingpin's aid, Mr. Dini, arranged her plans. She had the Kingpin sent to Switzerland for treatment.

(Daredevil II#30) - As the Kingpin was put on the plane, Vanessa decided to stay behind to punish those responsible for his attack.

(Daredevil II#31) - Under Vanessa's instructions, the Kingpin's men killed all those who had joined with Silke against her husband. Vanessa herself confronted and killed Richard. Sammy Silke managed to escape the attacks, fleeing to the police for protection. In exchange, he offered them the fact that Daredevil was actually Matt Murdock.

(Daredevil II#36 (fb) - BTS/ #41 (fb) - BTS) - Vanessa sold Fisk Towers to Donald Trump and divided the Kingpin's business between several of his former colleagues, including the Stilt-Man. However, she deliberately refused to offer any portion to the Owl, whom she cursed.

(Daredevil II#36) - Vanessa gave Matt Murdock the name of Henry Dobbs, the FBI agent who passed on Daredevil's information to the Daily Globe. Vanessa then told him that she would be leaving New York, never to return.

(Daredevil II#41 (fb) - BTS) - No sooner had Vanessa left town when the Owl and his men overpowered the other would-be crimelords, taking power for themselves.

(Daredevil II#46 - BTS) - The Kingpin killed one of his lieutenants, Walter (presumably Dini), for helping/allowing Vanessa kill Richard.

(Daredevil II#92 (fb) - BTS / Daredevil II#77-87 - BTS) - Vanessa fell terminally ill. When no medical cause could be found, she concluded that she was dying because she had killed Richard. In time, she blamed Daredevil and plotted revenge on him for her home in Zurich, Switzerland. After he had been arrested, imprisoned, and disbarred, she arranged the apparent murder of his business partner Foggy Nelson, apparently via lawyer Alton Lennox, while Daredevil eventually broke out of prison and learned of Lennox. She had Lennox lead Daredevil to Monaco.

(Daredevil II#92 (fb) - BTS) - From a former associate of Daredevil's, Vanessa obtained the "Memory Scent," which could make any man think of his fondest memories

(Daredevil II#91 (fb)) - Vanessa gave the Memory Scent to Lily Lucca to help her manipulate Matt Murdock and others.

(Daredevil II#89) - Vanessa noted Daredevil's arrival in Monaco, as planned.

(Daredevil II#89-91 - BTS) - Vanessa's agents, including Lily, Tombstone, and a new Matador, led Daredevil on a wild goose chase until he realized Lily was playing him.

(Daredevil II#92 (fb) - BTS) - Vanessa arranged the murder of former FBI National director Leland Drummond, and the placement of a suicide note, explaining his elaborate framing of Matt Murdock.

(Daredevil II#92) - Daredevil confronted Vanessa in Zurich, and she admitted the full extent of her manipulation and her reasons. She then offered Daredevil a chance to fix all of his recent problems in exchange for getting the Kingpin out of prison. He refused and departed, but she went ahead with her plans anyway. Matt learned of Drummond's death and the note found by his body.

(Daredevil II#93 (fb) - BTS) - Vanessa apparently died.

(Daredevil II#93) - After Matt was cleared of all charges and got his legal license back, he met with the Kingpin and offered to get the case against him thrown out in exchange for his leaving the country and giving up his US citizenship.
    Wilson visited Vanessa's grave.

Comments: Created by Stan "The Man" Lee and John "Ring-A-Ding" Romita.

    The 2003 Kingpin series either does not take place on Earth-616 or it needs a lot of bending. That story portrayed the Kingpin as a young punk, perhaps in his early twenties and not yet married, when he first encountered Spider-Man. As (1) Vanessa and the Kingpin have a son who was a college graduate when Peter Parker was just starting college and (2) It has been established that Fisk had been married to Vanessa for nearly 20 years before becoming the Kingpin of the New York mobs (and had been a criminal leader for a decade prior to marrying Vanessa), this just can't be. If the events are to be bent into continuity, it needs to be established that the Kingpin was much older than what might open in the series, and that he was just keeping Vanessa hidden from the rest of the world. Established continuity is confirmed in the Marvel Knights Encyclopedia and Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe: Daredevil 2004.
    In addition, as pointed out by our friends :
    The word "college" in French actually means high school, not university. A lot of rich parents from troubles countries send their children be raise in Swiss-based "colleges" which are in fact a little like British Public Schools (another misnomer)--Jean-Marc Lofficier.
    True for Britain too - there are lots of secondary schools (High Schools to you guys) which are called "Something" College.
    As for Vanessa' age when she met and married the Kingpin, please remember that depending on which European country she hailed from, she might have been over the age of consent - in Austria it is 14, Belgium it is 16, Denmark is 15, France 15, Germany 14 (but with restrictions until they turn 18), Hungary 14, Italy 14, Netherlands 16, Spain 13 (raised in 1999 from 12 years of age), the U.K. 16, etc -

    And it's certainly believable that the Kingpin could have forced things through or had officials turn a blind eye to his marrying a minor anyway.
    So you don't have to take the word "college" as automatically meaning university-level, au contraire.
    This also means that Richard might actually be the same age as Spider-Man, or even a year or two younger...

    Similarly, saying that Vanessa and Wilson had been married for "about two decades" is the same as saying nearly two decades, which means that the Kingpin took over the mobs--shortly before Amazing Spider-Man I#50--when they had been married for 16-19 years.

    The domino effect: Elektra had recently threatened Urich's life when he took the picture of Vanessa which led Daredevil to rescue her, which led to the Kingpin forcing Cherryh to decline the mayoral office. As punishment, the Kingpin sent Elektra to kill Foggy Nelson, but she couldn't do it after he recognized her as Matt's old girlfriend. This failure led the Kingpin to send Bullseye to kill Elektra. Full circle--though Elektra was later resurrected.

The Kingpin did not send Bullseye to kill Elektra. What happened was that while in prison, Frank Castle (after Turk ran away) informed Bullseye of Elektra taking his place as the Kingpin's chief assassin-(hoping he might try to escape and get killed doing so). Bullseye however escaped without a hitch, enraged that his place had been taken. Bullseye then tailed Elektra as she was about to wack Nelson. However, she then let Nelson go instead. Less than a heartbeat later, Bullseye made his move.
--Per Degaton

A "fringe" appearance...Batman/Spider-Man#1

  1. It is Earth-Crossover (or whatever you want to call it), a reality in which every single being, fictional or real, shares the same world and can freely interact. If that's the case, then it's not the Vanessa of Earth-616. Period.
  2. For whatever reason, via Access, the Brothers, or some other reality warp, the two realities (Earth-616 and DCU) briefly overlapped, such that it affected the memories of the inhabitants of both worlds remembered things as if the merge had always been that way.

No known connection to:


Amazing Spider-Man I#84, p10, panel 1
Captain America I#147, p3, panel 2
Daredevil I#179, p12, panel 1

Daredevil II#36, p16, panel 3 (remastered for the MKE)

Other Appearances:
Amazing Spider-Man I#69-70 (February-March, 1969) - John Romita & Stan Lee (writers), John Romita & Jim Mooney (pencils), Jim Mooney (inks), Stan Lee (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#83-85 (April-June, 1970) - Stan Lee (writer/editor), John Romita & John Buscerma (#84-85) (pencils), Mike Esposito & Jim Mooney (#84-85) (inks)
Captain America I#147 (March, 1972) - Gary Friedrich (writer), Sal Buscema (pencils), John Verpoorten (inks), Stan Lee (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#164 (January, 1977) - Len Wein (writer/editor), Ross Andru (pencils), Mike Esposito & Dave Hunt (inks)
Amazing Spider-Man I#197 (October, 1979) - Marv Wolfman (writer/editor), Keith Pollard (pencils), Jim Mooney (inks)
Daredevil I#170-172 (May-July, 1981) - Frank Miller (writer/pencils), Klaus Janson (inks), Denny O'Neil (editor)
Daredevil I#179-181 (February-April, 1982) - Frank Miller (writer/pencils), Klaus Janson (inks), Denny O'Neil (editor)
Daredevil I#186 (September, 1982) - Frank Miller (writer/pencils), Klaus Janson (inks), Denny O'Neil (editor)
Spectacular Spider-Man II#82 (September, 1983) - Bill Mantlo (writer), Al Milgrom (pencils), Jim Mooney (inks), Tom DeFalco (editor)
Daredevil I#211 (October, 1984) - Denny O'Neil (writer), David Mazzuchelli (pencils), Danny Bulanadi (inks), Bob Budiansky (editor)
Spectacular Spider-Man II#95-96 (October-November, 1984) - Al Milgrom (writer/pencils), Jim Mooney (inks), Danny Fingeroth (editor)
Spectacular Spider-Man II#100 (March, 1985) - Al Milgrom (writer/pencils), Geof Isherwood & Vince Colletta (inks), Danny Fingeroth (editor)
Marvel Graphic Novel: Daredevil: Love and War (1986)
Amazing Spider-Man I#285 (February, 1987) - Tom DeFalco & Jim Owsley (writers), Alan Kupperberg (pencils), Jim Fern (inks), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#286 (March, 1987) - Jim Owsley (writers), Alan Kupperberg (pencils), Jim Fern & Art Nichols (inks), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#287 (April, 1987) - Jim Owsley (writer), Eric Larsen (pencils), Art Nichols (inks), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#288 (May, 1987) - Jim Owsley (writer), Alan Kupperberg (pencils), Jim Fern (inks), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Web of Spider-Man#2 (May, 1985) - Louise Simonson (writer), Greg LaRocque (pencils), Jim Mooney (inks), Jim Owsley (editor)
Daredevil I#317 (June, 1993) - D.G. Chichester (writer), Scott McDaniel (pencils), Bud LaRosa (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Daredevil II#29-31 (March-May, 2002) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Alex Maleev (artist), Stuart Moore (editor)
Daredevil II#36 (October, 2002) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Alex Maleev (artist), Stuart Moore (editor)
Daredevil II#41 (March, 2003) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Alex Maleev (artist), Stuart Moore (editor)
Daredevil II#92 (February 2007) - Ed Brubaker (writer), Michael Lark & Stefano Gaudiano (artists), Alejandro Arbona (assistant editor), Warren Simons (editor)

First Posted: 05/09/2004
Last updated: 03/10/2011

Any Additions/Corrections? please let me know.

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