Real Name: Dr. Jerome Hamilton

Identity/Class: Human magic item and technology user (World War II, 1945-1959, pre-modern era)

Occupation: Vigilante; former scientist, occultist

Group Membership: None; formerly Enclave (Maris Morlak, Wladyslav Shinski, Carlo Zota), Three X's (2X/Carlo Zota, 3X/Maris Morlak), Scientists Guild (Phineas T. Horton, Maris Morlak, Carlo Zota)

Affiliations: Ted Barry, Carol Carson, Daniel Damian, Eternity, Ferret (Leslie Lenrow), Professor Phineas Horton, Maisie Leeds, Alicia Masters;
formerly Thunderer (Jerry Carstairs)

Enemies: Enclave (Maris Morlak, Wladyslav Shinski, Carlo Zota), Francesi, Green Terror and his squad, Hawkeye (Clint Barton), Him (Adam Warlock), Mockingbird (Barbara Barton), Speedo, Thunderer (Jerry Carstairs), Weapon Alpha (James MacDonald Hudson), the criminal world in general

Known Relatives: None

Aliases: X1, 1X

Base of Operations: Mobile;
    formerly the Citadel of Science/Beehive, on a rocky plateau on a small island in the North Atlantic Ocean;
   formerly the Three X's secret sanctum in New York City

First Appearance: (Scientists Guild member) Marvel Comics#1 (October, 1939);
   (X1) Mystic Comics I#1/4 (March, 1940);
   (Hamilton--face covered and unidentified) Fantastic Four I#65 (August, 1967);
   (named) Fantastic Four I#66 (September, 1967);
   (Blind Justice) Solo Avengers#8/1 (July, 1988)

Powers/Abilities: Hamilton wore the Eternity Mask, which gave him equal power to whoever he faced in combat as long as his intentions were pure. This made him an excellent hand-to-hand combatant and excellent marksman with a gun if necessary. His lifespan was enhanced by decades.

He uses a tranquilizer gun to stun people.

Hamilton has a degree in medical biology and is learned in many other scientific fields.

(Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Deluxe Edition#4: Enclave (fb) - BTS) - Jerome Hamilton was an American medical biologist.

(Marvel Comics#1 (fb) - BTS) <1939> - After the press alerted the public of the Human Torch's existence the Scientists Guild was contacted.

(Marvel Comics#1) - They called the Torch's creator Phineas Horton and arranged a meeting to see the Torch at 8 that night.

(Marvel Comics#1/Marvel Comics#1000/1 (fb)) - Hamilton, Morlak and Zota arrived on time at Horton's lab at the behalf of the Scientists Guild to investigate the Human Torch. Hamilton watched as Horton fed air into the Human Torch's tank, activating the android's flame powers.

(Marvel Comics#1) - Shocked by the immense heat created by the android's flames and Horton's lack of control over it, the Scientists Guild suggested to destroy or entomb the robot in a concrete block. Horton agreed to do the latter in hope to find a solution for the android's flaw.

(Marvel Comics#1000/2 (fb) - BTS) - The Scientists Guild reinvented themselves as the crime-busting team known as the Three X's. Hamilton became X1 (or 1X).

(Mystic Comics I#1/1) - Ted Barry and Carol Carson went to the police after Ted's fiancée Maisie Leeds had been kidnapped by the Green Terror's men. The Three X's had already been called in to investigate the series of kidnappings. One of Green Terror's men observed the Three X's with the police commissioner. 1X gave 2X a glove that had been found on the crime scene. 1X promised Ted Barry that they would find Maisie.

   2X found pollen on the glove from a rare South African orchid. Moments later the Three X's were attacked by the Green Terror's men, who retrieved the glove. 1X was knocked out.

   The Three X's found out that the kidnappings started after a South African ship arrived in New York City. They boarded the S.S. Caribou, followed by Carol and Ted, and got captured by the Green Terror's men, which was actually part of 1X's plan. They were brought before the Green Terror, who planned to drain rich, healthy Americans of their blood and feast on it to enhance his own lifespan. The Three X's quickly took care of the situation. 1X knocked out the S.S. Caribou's captain, who was working with the Green Terror. Maisie was saved while the Green Terror and his men were arrested.

   Three days later the Three X's were back in New York City and the commissioner thanked them for ridding the world of the Green Terror, who was sentenced to death on the electric chair.

(Marvel Comics#1000/2 (fb)) <1940> - The Three X's visited private investigator Ferret (Leslie Lenrow) and asked him to hand over the mask he had worn while working as the Operative. X1 introduced the team while X3 (Zota) reiterated that they were only there for the mask. Unaware of the Eternity Mask's true powers the Ferret handed it over to the Three X's.

(Marvel Comics#1000/3 (fb)) <1941> - The Three X's used magic and the Eternity Mask to empower Jerry Carstairs as part of the government's Project: Thunderer.

(Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Deluxe Edition#4: Enclave (fb) - BTS) - Hamilton, Morlak, and Zota met Shinski at a world convention of scientists, discovered their mutual world-view, and decided to pool their resources to create an independent scientific community.

(Marvel Comics#1000/8 (fb) - BTS) - The Scientists Guild influenced and bankrolled Horton to create Adam-II and supplied the programming for the synthezoid. Adam-II ended up killing Captain America (William Nasland). The Thunderer quit the Scientists Guild over this and kept the Eternity Mask. He vowed to take them down if they ever came after him to get back the mask.

(Marvel Comics#1000/4 (fb)) - The Three X's aka. Scientists Guild vanished from the public eye.

(Fantastic Four I#66 (fb) - BTS / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Deluxe Edition#4 (fb) - BTS) - Over the course of a year, each scientist faked his own death and then rendezvoused with the others on a small island -- Hamilton had learned of this island from his archeologist friend Daniel Damian, and the ruins of a technologically advanced stronghold believed to have been an abandoned Deviant outpost. The four used the ruins there to create their own Citadel of Science, named the Beehive.

(Marvel Comics#1000/12 (fb) - BTS) - The Scientists Guild killed the Thunderer to regain the Eternity Mask from him, but the Thunderer knew it would never work for them due to their megalomaniacal goals.

(Fantastic Four I#66 (fb) - BTS / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Deluxe Edition#4 (fb) - BTS) - After about a decade of work, the immense Beehive was fully operational, and it was one of the foremost scientific research facilities on Earth. Working together, and using technology from the ruins, they created a number of breakthroughs, including anti-gravity transmitters, molecular bond severing blades, a vacuum car rail-system, and a teleportation machine with a 2000 mile range (the Transfer Grid).

(Marvel Comics#1000/20 (fb)) - Morlak considered the Eternity Mask a disappointment, but Hamilton realized that it didn't work for them because they planned to rule the world and not to fight those like the Thunderer. The Three X's accepted Shinski's ideas to create a race of perfect humans and rechristened themselves the Enclave.

(Fantastic Four I#66 (fb) - BTS / Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Deluxe Edition#4 (fb) - BTS) - Their first project upon which they pinned their hopes was to create a vastly powerful new race of human beings under their control to subjugate the rest of humanity. For another decade, the four scientists labored, eventually creating a single embryonic creature.

(Fantastic Four I#66 (fb)) - The scientists nurtured the creature, but as it neared maturity, it broke free from its containment chamber and fled deep into the chamber known as Lock 41. When they tried to recapture (or even approach) it, it drove them away with powerful energy blasts.
    Desperate to learn what their creation looked like (known only as "Him", the creature radiated blinding light that made it impossible to visualize), they came upon the idea of using the renown blind sculptress, Alicia Masters, to make a bust of Him.

(Fantastic Four I#65) - Hamilton used the Transfer Grid to enter Alicia's apartment, and convinced her to join him willingly.

(Fantastic Four I#65) - Hamilton used the Transfer Grid to enter Alicia's apartment, and convinced her to join him willingly.

(Fantastic Four I#66) - Arriving in the Beehive, Hamilton introduced Alicia to the others and explained their purpose. Soon after, against the wishes of the others, Hamilton joined Alicia as they entered Lock 41. Him radiated powerful energy in an effort to drive them back.

(Fantastic Four I#67) - As Him fired on the two with an energy burst, Hamilton returned fire with his automatic pistol, to no avail. Him then created tendrils to bind Hamilton, allowing only Alicia to approach his cocoon. Fearing the worst, the other three scientists prepared to use their anti-gravity transmitter to beam Him into space if he threatened them. As Alicia found Him, ready to emerge from his cocoon, Hamilton broke free and attempted to kill Him, believing him to be a failed experiment and a threat to all life on Earth. In response, Him lashed out and seemingly slew Hamilton in a rockslide.

(Marvel Comics#1000/29) - Hamilton survived, but was left blind. He found the Eternity Mask in the destroyed base and vowed to take revenge on the Enclave.

(Defenders VI#1 (fb) - BTS) - Hamilton started a war against the Enclave as Blind Justice.

(Marvel Comics#1000/41) - Blind Justice single-handedly destroyed an Enclave outpost in the Yukon Territory in Canada. Weapon Alpha (Hudson) was sent in to take down the outpost and ran afoul of Blind Justice, who believed him to be an Enclave operative. Blind Justice shot Weapon Alpha with an electric gun, which short-circuited Weapon Alpha's suit. Blind Justice escaped.

(Solo Avengers#8/1) - Blind Justice went to Francesi's flower store, to take him down. He knew that Francesi was not only a store owner, but actually a criminal running illegal operations in the neighborhood. He used his stun gun to take down some of Francesi's men, but Hawkeye and Mockingbird arrived at almost the same time. Hawkeye tried to take down Blind Justice, but he managed to escape his arrows. Outside he threatened to kill Francesi. Francesi tried to buy his own life, but Blind Justice wanted no money -- only justice. Before he had a chance to shoot the man, Hawkeye came to Francesi's rescue. Francesi suddenly suffered a heart attack, and while Blind Justice left, Hawkeye tried to save the man by taking him to a hospital. At the hospital Francesi died, and Blind Justice himself sent a card saying "In the service of Justice"

(Solo Avengers#9/1) - Trying to get rid of two of his problems, the criminal known as Speedo set-up Blind Justice and Hawkeye at the docks. But the Shroud showed up to help Hawkeye, and Blind Justice himself captured Speedo and his second-in-command, Zipper. He told Speedo that he was to be executed for trying to kill an Avenger. Speedo said he was just having some fun with Hawkeye, but reached for his gun, shooting Blind Justice, who fell down in the water, but not before he shot Speedo. Hawkeye and The Shroud watched helplessly as Blind Justice plunged into the water, and they thought him dead, but when they left, Blind Justice's hand was reaching for a ladder.

(Civil War: Battle Damage Report) - Tony Stark considered Blind Justice as a potential Initiative recruit.


(Defenders VI#1 (fb) - BTS) - Hamilton continued his secret war against the Enclave. In the end only he and Zota were left.

(Defenders VI#5 (fb) - BTS) - The Eternity Mask told Hamilton that he would pass it on the day before he died.

   Hamilton laid out a Masked Raider costume for Zota.

(Defenders VI#5) - Zota, after killing his future self, arrived in the past to meet Hamilton, who had already prepared a costume for Zota. Hamilton knew that the Enclave was expecting him, but not the Masked Raider. Zota apologized for killing Hamilton in the future and didn't understand why Hamilton would give the Eternity Mask to him. Hamilton explained that Eternity had decided it, handed over the mask and was glad that he would finally destroy Zota that way. Zota was sure that he could prevent getting killed this time around (he was trapped in a time loop).

(Defenders VI#5 (ff) - BTS) - Blind Justice was killed by Zota.

(Marvel Comics#1000/53 (fb) - BTS) - Zota used a chronal device that aged Hamilton rapidly by exposure to unstable "sliding time," which would make it impossible to determine if he was killed a day or ten years ago.

(Marvel Comics#1000/53) - Night Thrasher found Blind Justice's corpse, but the Eternity Mask was gone. He was sure that Blind Justice was killed after passing along the Eternity Mask voluntarily to someone else.

Comments: Created by Carl Burgos (Scientists Guild).
Robert Eisman & News Alfred (Three X's).
Stan Lee, Jack Kirby & Joe Sinnott (Jerome Hamilton).
Tom DeFalco & Mark Bright (Blind Justice).

Profile by The Beetle. Images by Zerostar. Update/merger by Markus Raymond.

Blind Justice has no know connection to:

images: (without ads)
Solo Avengers#8, Cover (main image)
Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Deluxe Edition#4, Enclave entry (Dr. Jerome Hamilton)
Mystic Comics I#1/4, p2, pan4 (1X)
Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z Update#3, Enclave entry (Enclave uniform)
Solo Avengers#8, p7, pan1 (Blind Justice in action)
Defenders VI#5, p17, pan3 (literally blind, Blind Justice)

Marvel Comics#1 (October, 1939) - Carl Burgos (writer), Martin Goodman (editor)
Mystic Comics I#1/4 (March, 1940) - Robert Erisman (writer), Newt Alfred (artist), Martin Goodman (editor)
Fantastic Four I#65-67 (August-October, 1967) - Stan Lee (writer), Jack Kirby (pencils), Joe Sinnott (inks), Stan Lee (editor)
Solo Avengers#8-9 (July-August, 1988) - Tom DeFalco (writer), Mark Bright (pencils), Jose Marzan (inks), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
Civil War: Battle Damage Report (2007)
Marvel Comics#1000 (October, 2019) - Al Ewing (writer), Steve Epting, Patrick Zircher, Leonardo Romero, Joshua Cassara, Gabriel Hardman, Klaus Janson, Joe Bennett with Ruy José, Carlos Pacheco with Rafael Fonteriz, Daniel Acu&ntild;e, Jesús Saiz (artists), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Defenders VI#1 (October, 2021) - Al Ewing (writer), Javier Rodríguez (artist), Wil Moss (editor)
Defenders VI#5 (March, 2022) - Al Ewing (writer), Javier Rodríguez (artist), Wil Moss (editor)

First Posted: 10/03/2002
Last updated: 07/17/2022

Any Additions/Corrections? please let me know.

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