Real Name: Jacob "Jake" Conover
Identity/Class: Normal human
Group Membership: Formerly Daily Bugle staff
Affiliations: Bullseye (Lester), Caesar Cicero, General Nguyen Ngoc Coy, Delilah, Doctor Octopus (Carolyn Trainer), Doctor Strange (Stephen Strange), Electro (Max Dillon), Elektra (Elektra Natchios), Jake Farber, Vincente Fortunato, Hammerhead, Elwood McNulty, Norman Osborn, Scrier (Charles Bates), Phil Sheldon, Silvermane (Silvio Manfredi), Slug (Ulysses X. Lugman), Stunner (Angelina Brancale), Tombstone (Lonnie Lincoln), True Believers, Lynn Walsh, Billy Walters
LaMuerto), Captain America (Steve Rogers), Daredevil (Matt Murdock),
Hobgoblin (Jason Macendale), Hobgoblin (Roderick Kingsley),
J. Jonah Jameson, Kingpin (Wilson Fisk), Garon Lewis,
Punisher (Frank Castle), Joe Robertson, Spider-Man
(Peter Parker), Spider-Man (Ben Reilly), Vito
Torrancio, Ben Urich;
formerly True Believers
Known Relatives: None
Base of Operations: A Manhattan penthouse on Fifth Avenue
Appearance: (Conover) Daredevil I#131 (March, 1976);
(Rose) Amazing Spider-Man I#414 (August, 1996)
Powers/Abilities: Conover is an experienced reporter and a reasonably skilled crimelord. He has access to an extensive network of informants. As the Rose, he carried a handgun.
History: (Daredevil I#131 (fb) ) - Conover fought in a war overseas. (see comments)
(Spider-Man: Hobgoblin Lives#1 (fb) ) - Approximately thirty years ago, Conover started writing for the Daily Bugle. His Conover's Corner column became a Bugle institution.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#-1) - Conover regretted that Bugle editor J. Jonah Jameson kept assigning him to soft news stories; hoping to correct this, he made contact with a mobster, Vincente Fortunato, in the hopes of writing an article about the power struggle within the New York underworld. After explaining all this to his colleague Phil Sheldon, he met with Fortunato in a warehouse; unfortunately, the current crimelord of New York, Don Rigoletto, had been murdered by his lieutenant Wilson Fisk, meaning that Fortunato was marked for death. When Fisk's enforcers burst into the warehouse, Conover knocked a pile of crates on top of them, distracting them and allowing Fortunato to kill them all in cold blood. Fortunato left, intending to leave the city for some time, and promised Conover that he would one day repay him for saving his life. Later, at the Bugle, a shellshocked Conover gladly accepted an assignment to cover a flower show.
(Daredevil I#131 (fb) ) - Several years after Conover's encounter with Fortunato, the assassin Bullseye met with Conover to boast of his criminal deeds, and demonstrated his amazing abilities to him.
(Daredevil I#131) - Conover met Daredevil while covering the murder of Hunnicutt, a businessman who had been killed by Bullseye. He took DD back to his office at the Bugle, where he told him of Bullseye's origins.
(Daredevil I#135 - BTS) - Conover wrote an article on ex-District Attorney Franklin "Foggy" Nelson's angry reaction to inaccurate news reports.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#248/2 - BTS) - Conover met with leukemia-stricken Spider-Man fan Timothy Harrison, and wrote a Conover's Corner column on him, inspiring Spider-Man to visit him.
(Avengers I#262 - BTS) - Conover wrote a column speculating that Captain America's new Stars and Stripes hotline was a precursor to him leaving the Avengers.
(Spider-Man: Hobgoblin Lives#1 (fb)/Spider-Man: Hobgoblin Lives#3 (fb) ) - Conover was working on a big story on corporate corruption, exposing secrets at Roxxon and Osborn Industries, among others. Ned Leeds borrowed his files (at the hypnotic command of Roderick Kingsley, the Hobgoblin), and after Ned's death, Conover found that his files had vanished.
(X-Factor Annual I#4/3 (fb) ) - After the "Inferno" incident, when demons invaded Manhattan, Conover contacted occult expert Dr. Stephen Sanders of the Metaphysical Institute (secretly actual sorcerer Dr. Stephen Strange), who claimed that the whole thing was a mass hallucination. His sources, however, indicated that the Avengers and X-Factor had been in the thick of it.
(X-Factor Annual I#4/3) - FBI agents Jacob Farber and Elwood McNulty met with Conover at the Bugle offices, where he imparted everything he knew about Inferno to them. Later, the agents passed on a false report from X-Factor leader Cyclops, claiming that the hallucinations had been caused by a blimp-mounted AIM hypno-ray. The Bugle published Conover's story.
(Web of Spider-Man I#59) - Conover, and the rest of the Bugle staff, listened to new Bugle owner Thomas Fireheart as he explained the paper's new pro-Spider-Man policy.
(Spider-Man Unlimited I#3/2 - BTS) - Conover told Peter Parker that Cedric Forrester had arranged to use lab space at Empire State University.
(Spider-Man: Legacy of Evil - BTS) - With Ben Urich on a leave of absence, Conover was assigned to write an article about Normie Osborn's kidnapping by three mysterious "Goblin women".
(Green Goblin#4) - Conover and Bugle intern Lynn Walsh attended a press conference held by Ronald Vancolder, the Manhattan Transit Authority's new receiver of revenues, on board the MTA's "money train". As Conover helped himself to the refreshments. however, the train was attacked by the Hobgoblin. The Green Goblin and the Thing soon ran off the Hobgoblin and his gang, rescuing Conover and the others.
(Green Goblin#7 - BTS) - Conover gave Lynn several passes to a new exhibit at the Idelson Museum of Modern Art.
(Spectacular Spider-Man II#235) - Conover showed new Bugle reporter Billy Walters around the office.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#436 (fb) ) - Experiencing money troubles, Conover called in his favor with Fortunato, who gave him the masked identity and territory of the Rose (Richard Fisk), and provided him with the superhuman enforcer Delilah.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#414) - The Rose had Delilah kill rival mobster Vito Torrancio, and waited for her outside his hideout in a limo. When she returned, he gave her her next assignment - to attempt to assassinate Detective Garon Lewis to frame another rival, Hammerhead. When she reported her success to him, he was pleased.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#416) - Learning that Spider-Man had intercepted one of his weapons shipments (which had been intended to go to Fortunato), the Rose discussed his arrangements with Delilah to free his men and reacquire his merchandise. They were both startled by the sudden appearance of a member of the Scrier crime cartel, who proposed an alliance with him.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#416/Green Goblin#13) - Due to budget cuts at the Bugle, Conover was laid off. As he cleaned out his desk and stormed out of the building, he swore to teach J. Jonah Jameson and Joe Robertson "the true meaning of sorrow".
(Spider-Man I#73) - The Rose attended an underworld summit with General Nguyen Ngoc Coy, Hammerhead, Tombstone, Gavin Thorpe, Silvermane, Caesar Cicero, and the Slug, where they agreed to ally together against Fortunato. Their assault force, led by Tombstone, failed in their attempt to assassinate him.
(Spider-Man I#74) -Fortunato gathered the Rose and the other conspirators before an assembly of his men and his Hydra allies, where he planned to execute Tombstone, Spider-Man (Ben Reilly), and a civilian from each of the conspirators' territories. Fortunato's gave each of the crimelords a gun with which to execute one of the civilians, but Spider-Man soon broke free and put down the crimelords with sedative stingers.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#417) - The Rose met with Scrier at his penthouse, having learned more about him from his European contacts. Angrily, he accused the Scrier of lying to him, as Scrier wasn't an indivdual man, but the name of his whole organization! After he related what he knew about the Scriers, the Scrier revealed what he knew about the Rose, who he believed to be Richard Fisk. The Rose replied that he never claimed to be Richard Fisk - nor could the Scriers prove otherwise. Unwilling to deal with an underling, he requested an audience with the Scriers' master, which was declined.
(Spider-Man: Hobgoblin Lives#1) - Conover watched the coverage of Jason Macendale's trial on TV in a bar, and related the story of his missing corporate files to the bartender. The next day, he attended Macendale's approach to the courthouse as a stringer for a wire service, and asked the mercenary if he was the first Hobgoblin. Macendale told him that he wasn't, and directed the reporters to Betty Brant - because her late husband, Ned Leeds, was the first Hobgoblin!
(Spider-Man: Hobgoblin Lives#2) - After Macendale was assassinated by the real first Hobgoblin (Roderick Kingsley), Conover tried to interview Flash Thompson, who the Hobgoblin had framed years ago, but was rebuffed. He began following Betty Brant, instead, and when he saw her on the news talking about how she'd found Ned's notes on corporate corruption, he tracked her down and shoved her in a cab, demanding his notes back. Spider-Man was on the scene, and pulled Conover out of the cab; as Betty declided to press charges, they were attacked by the Hobgoblin, who Spider-Man drove off.
(Spider-Man: Hobgoblin Lives#3) - Having learned that the Hobgoblin had forces Ned to steal Conover's notes, Betty invited Conover to watch Kingsley being put into jail. Leaving the prison, he briefly chatted with Betty, Peter Parker, and his wife Mary Jane before leaving.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#419) - The Rose arranged to buy some black-market emeralds from the Black Tarantula, a South American crimelord. Although he was apprehensive about the Tarantula's desire to expand his territory, he instructed Delilah to go through with the deal. Unfortunately for the Rose, the Tarantula and his enforcer, El Uno, double-crossed them, resulting in the deaths of several of the Rose's henchmen, although Delilah was saved thanks to Spider-Man's intervention.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#420) - As he decorated his penthouse for Christmas, the Rose informed Delilah that El Uno had escaped from the hospital. Later, after she hunted El Uno down and killed him, the Rose mailed his severed head to the Black Tarantula.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#421/2) - Conover ran into Peter Parker on the ESU campus, and asked him to send Joe Robertson his regards. Later, as the Rose, he learned that the Black Tarantula's True Believer ninjas had hit one of his warehouses; Delilah suggested a "delightful" way to take his mind off his problems, but the Rose refused, as he was unwilling to remove his mask.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#422) - The Rose met with Fortunato, who wished to forestall a gang war with the Black Tarantula; Fortunato offered to assist him against the South American, but the Rose declined, as he had already arranged to enhance Electro's abilities so he could act as the Rose's agent. Returning home, he found that Electro's procedure had been a success.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#423) - The Rose congratulated Electro on his new power, but reminded him that he needed him to take down the True Believers. Soon, the Rose's information network spotted the ninjas moving towards midtown, sending Electro on his way. When Delilah asked the Rose if he trusted the villain, he told her that "the Rose trusts no one".
(Amazing Spider-Man I#424) - The reformed assassin Elektra invaded the Rose's penthouse; the Rose called off Delilah, and instead offered to work with Elektra against the True Believers. With the help of his network of informants, Elektra tracked the ninjas down.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#425) - With his cash reserves running low, the Rose sent Electro to hijack an armored truck; unfortunately, Electro incinerated both the truck and its cargo. Later, he presented Electro with an abandoned power station he'd acquired for him, and insisted that there be no more mishaps. After Electro destroyed the station and threatened New York with an electrical bomb, the Rose went bowling with Delilah and considered his options for a new superhuman agent. He hired the True Believers out from under the Tarantula's nose and contracted them to steal the then-deceased Otto Octavius's body.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#428 (fb) ) - Norman Osborn contacted Conover to inform him that he'd acquired a controlling stake in the Bugle, and wanted him back on staff.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#426) - The Rose and Delilah met with the True Believers at the No Bull meatpacking plant, where they'd stashed Octavius' corpse. While the Rose fretted over Octavius' protege Carolyn Trainer and her search for his stolen body, the Believers' Master Zei informed him that they would need a human sacrifice to bring Octavius back from the dead. Soon, Trainer and her associate Stunner tracked them down, but the Rose talked both women into aiding him against the newly-arrived Spider-Man. Soon, the ninjas had knocked Spider-Man out and began to prepare him to be their sacrifice...
(Amazing Spider-Man I#427) - The Rose watched as the ninjas prepared for the ceremony, only to see Spider-Man break free of his chains and escape. While Delilah pursued him, Stunner volunteered herself in his place. As the ceremony proceeded, the Rose hid under a blanket in the corner; the ninjas were successful, at the cost of their own lives, and Octavius lived again...although he certainly felt he owed nothing to the Rose.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#428) - As he examined the empty robes of the True Believers, the Rose demanded an explanation from Carolyn Trainer. She had no answers herself, and rushed to aid Octavius against Spider-Man while the Rose found Delilah, who had been defeated by Spider-Man, and slipped away. That night, Conover met with Joe Robertson at the Bugle; Robertson offered him his job back, which Conover condescendingly accepted.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#430) - Conover accepted an invitation to a meeting with Norman Osborn at the Bugle. On his way in, he bumped into the departing Joe Robertson, who he rudely dismissed again. Greeting Conover warmly, Osborn offered to discuss a business arrangement...
(Spectacular Spider-Man II#254) - Conover expressed his admiration for Osborn to Peter Parker, who didn't exactly share his views.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#432) - The Rose met with Fortunato at his estate, where they discussed the negative impact the bounty the Daily Bugle had placed on Spider-Man had had on their businesses. The conversation turned to the Black Tarantula...who promptly crashed through Fortunato's window! He had arrived to talk business; Fortunato promptly asked the Rose to leave so he could do so.
(Spectacular Spider-Man II#255) - At the Bugle, Conover asked Urich why he was so upset at Joe Robertson's recent departure, given that it meant men like them could move up the ladder. When Urich responded with insults, Conover suggested that he should spend more time trying to clear new Bugle owner Norman Osborn of being the Green Goblin. Conover then asked him to pass on any material on the Green Goblin, and aceded to Jameson's request to assemble their material on Normie Osborn's kidnapping.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#434) - The Rose attended a summit with Fortunato and the Tarantula, where he agreed to surrender a portion of his territory to the Tarantula to end the gang war, but he demanded a monthly cut of the Tarantula's profits in return.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#435) - Delilah told the Rose about her newest acquaintance, the vigilante Ricochet (secretly Peter Parker in disguise). He agreed with her that he could be useful against the Black Tarantula, then departed to attend a summit with Fortunato and the Tarantula, arriving just in time to miss Fortunato's speculation on the Tarantula's origins.
(Spider-Man: Made Men) - With the Kingpin having returned to New York, the Rose attended a summit on board a yacht with Fortunato, Hammerhead, Caesar Cicero, and Silvermane. As they argued over what to do, a missile fired from shore hit the boat; the assembled crimelords safely made it to the lifeboats and blamed the Kingpin for the attack, although it was actually Norman Osborn's ploy to ignite a gang war. It succeeded, and the Rose and the other gang leaders entered into open warfare, opposed by Spider-Man, Daredevil, Captain America, and the Punisher.
(Amazing Spider-Man I#436) - At Fortunato's Staten Island estate, the Rose vented his anger about the recent attack by the Tarantula's hirelings on Delilah. Fortunato, however, took the Tarantula's side, given that he was a man who could defeat Spider-Man, whereas the Rose was an "incompetent, loud-mouthed, strutting popinjay". He tore off the Rose's mask, and told him that he needed to handle his own problems, just as Fortunato's godson Dante Rigoletto entered with his girlfriend Marina Caches, her son Fabian, and Marina's friend Mary Jane Watson in tow, seeking shelter from the Tarantula - who happened to be Marina's ex-husband and Fabian's father. As Spider-Man and the Black Tarantula battled outside, Conover mulled over his options, and planned to kill off Fortunato and all the witnesses to inherit his empire. When the battle spilled over into Fortunato's estate, Conover took aim at the Tarantula, as well, but Spider-Man shot him with impact webbing and left him for the police.
Comments: Conover created by Marv Wolfman, Bob Brown, and Klaus Janson. Rose created by Tom DeFalco, Mark Bagley, and Larry Mahlstedt.
In Daredevil I#131, Conover states that he was drafted and fought in Korea - both must be topical references, as the draft was abolished in 1973, and Conover appears to be, at most, in his 50s - although much like Dr. Ashley Kafka, he got younger-looking as he got older.
There was kind of a multiple mystery villain pileup in the Spider-books circa 1997-98; Tom DeFalco's Amazing featured both the Rose and the Black Tarantula, while J.M. DeMatteis' Spectacular had a long-running plot with Mad Jack. All three were hinted to be characters we already knew. There's some speculation that DeMatteis (then-writer of Spectacular) planned to have Conover be Mad Jack, given his hatred of J. Jonah Jameson, but given that Conover appeared only twice in DeMatteis' Spectacular run (both times in issues co-written by DeFalco), it seems unlikely; he was ultimately revealed to be replacement Mysterio Daniel Berkhart, but who knows if that's what DeMatteis originally intended. The Black Tarantula turned out to be someone we'd never seen before, although at one point he refers to Joe Robertson as his "old colleague", something that, to the best of my knowledge, was never explained; it could mean that DeFalco intended Conover to be the Tarantula, but that really seems at odd with what we saw of the Tarantula.
And as for the Rose, DeFalco definitely sets up the connection with Fortunato starting with Amazing Spider-Man I#-1, but before that I'm not sure if that was his original plan at all. While it would make sense for Conover to become the Rose after he was laid off from the Bugle, we see the new Rose is active before those layoffs even happen.
Nobody seems to have told Roger Stern that Conover was the Rose, as his actions in Hobgoblin Lives aren't really befitting a crimelord with better things to do than hassle poor Betty Brant. That said, there's an amusing panel where Mary Jane says that, despite working for Roderick Kingsley, she "never would've suspected him of leading a double life!" To which Conover responds "Hey, ya never know!" Heh. Maybe Stern did know...
Certainly, nobody told Howard Mackie or John Romita Jr., as the Rose appears with eyeglasses and a mask that exposes his hair - his blond hair. Maybe Conover wore a wig to throw people off the scent.
So what kind of business arrangement did Norman Osborn make with Conover? It was never followed up on. Did Osborn know Conover was the Rose?
Despite the whole "true meaning of sorrow" thing, Conover's revenge on the Bugle seems limited to being kind of a dick once he got re-hired.
Amusingly, in his first appearance in Daredevil, Conover talks to Daredevil one panel after DD finishes talking with a cop named Bert Rose.
Profile by Minor Irritant.
Jacob Conover, alias the Rose, should not be confused with:
Amazing Spider-Man I#421/2, p20, pan2 (main image)
Amazing Spider-Man I#436, p10, pan1 (unmasked headshot)
Amazing Spider-Man I#-1, p18, pan2 (younger Conover)
Daredevil I#131, p9, pan6 (with trademark hat)
Spider-Man I#73, p3, pan3 (weird alternate John Romita Jr. look)
Spider-Man I#73, p3, pan3 (Santa suit)
Amazing Spider-Man I#416, p13, pan2 (alternate suit)
Daredevil I#131 (March, 1976) - Marv Wolfman (writer/editor), Bob Brown (pencils), Klaus Janson (inks)
Daredevil I#135 (July, 1976) - Marv Wolfman (writer/editor), Bob Brown (pencils), Jim Mooney (inks)
Amazing Spider-Man I#248/2 (January, 1984) - Roger Stern (writer), Ron Frenz (pencils), Terry Austin (inks), Bob DeNatale (editor)
Avengers I#262 (December, 1985) - Roger Stern (writer), John Buscema (pencils), Tom Palmer (inks), Mark Gruenwald (editor)
X-Factor Annual I#4/3 (1989) - Mark Gruenwald (writer), Jim Fern (pencils), Joe Rubinstein (inks), Bob Harras (editor)
Web of Spider-Man I#59 (December, 1989) - Gerry Conway (writer), Alex Saviuk (pencils), Keith Williams (inks), Jim Salicrup (editor)
Spider-Man Unlimited I#3/2 (November, 1993) - Kurt Busiek (writer), Aaron Lopresti (pencils), Sam DeLaRosa (inks), Danny Fingeroth (editor)
Green Goblin#4 (January, 1996) - Tom DeFalco (writer), Scott McDaniel (pencils), Derek Fisher (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Green Goblin#7 (April, 1996) - Tom DeFalco (writer), Scott McDaniel (pencils), Derek Fisher (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Spider-Man: Legacy of Evil (April, 1996) - Kurt Busiek (writer), Mark Texeira (art), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Spectacular Spider-Man II#235 (June, 1996) - Todd DeZago (writer), Sal Buscema (pencils), John Stanisci (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#414 (August, 1996) - Tom DeFalco (writer), Mark Bagley (pencils), Larry Mahlstedt (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#416 (October, 1996) - Tom DeFalco (writer), Ron Garney (pencils), Al Williamson (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Spider-Man I#73-74 (October-November, 1996) - Howard Mackie (writer), John Romita Jr. (pencils), Al Williamson (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#417 (November, 1996) - Tom DeFalco (writer), Ron Garney (pencils), Al Williamson (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Spider-Man: Hobgoblin Lives#1 (January, 1997) - Roger Stern (writer), Ron Frenz (pencils), George Perez (inks), Glenn Greenberg & Tom Brevoort (editors)
Spider-Man: Hobgoblin Lives#2 (February, 1997) - Roger Stern (writer), Ron Frenz (pencils), Jerome Moore & Scott Hanna (inks), Glenn Greenberg & Tom Brevoort (editors)
Spider-Man: Hobgoblin Lives#3 (March, 1997) - Roger Stern (writer), Ron Frenz (pencils), Bob McLeod (inks), Glenn Greenberg & Tom Brevoort (editors)
Amazing Spider-Man I#419-420 (January-February, 1997) - Tom DeFalco (writer), Steve Skroce (pencils), Bud LaRosa (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#421/2 (March, 1997) - Tom DeFalco (writer), Geof Isherwood (art), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#422 (April, 1997) - Tom DeFalco (writer), Joe Bennett (pencils), Bud LaRosa (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#423 (May, 1997) - Tom DeFalco (writer), Joe Bennett (pencils), Bud LaRosa & Ralph Cabrera (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#424 (June, 1997) - Tom DeFalco (writer), Joe Bennett (pencils), Bud LaRosa, Harry Candelario & Ralph Cabrera (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#-1 (July, 1997) - Tom DeFalco (writer), Joe Bennett (pencils), Bud LaRosa (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#425 (August, 1997) - Tom DeFalco (writer), Steve Skroce (pencils), Bud LaRosa (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#426-428 (September-November, 1997) - Tom DeFalco (writer), Steve Skroce (pencils), Bud LaRosa (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#430 (January, 1998) - Tom DeFalco (writer), Joe Bennett (pencils), Bud LaRosa (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Spectacular Spider-Man II#254 (February, 1998) - J.M. DeMatteis (plot), Tom DeFalco (script), Luke Ross (pencils), Dan Green (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#432 (March, 1998) - Tom DeFalco (writer), John Romita Jr. (pencils), Bud LaRosa (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Spectacular Spider-Man II#255 (March, 1998) - Tom DeFalco (plot), J.M. DeMatteis (script), Luke Ross (pencils), Dan Green & Al Milgrom (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Amazing Spider-Man I#434-436 (May-July, 1998) - Tom DeFalco (writer), Joe Bennett (pencils), Bud LaRosa (inks), Ralph Macchio (editor)
Spider-Man: Made Men (August, 1998) - Howard Mackie (writer), Norman Felchle (art), Ralph Macchio (editor)
First Posted: 08/04/2013
Last updated: 10/20/2013
Any Additions/Corrections? please let me know.
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