MU

Environment: (Pre-Cataclysmic Age) Continent located in the Eastern Ocean (modern Pacific Ocean); (after the Great Cataclysm) submerged continent located in the Pacific Ocean

Dominant Life Form: Humans, Deviants, Gigantus’ race

Significant Inhabitants: Astarta, Gigantus, Karlak, Valron

First Appearance: (historical) "Queen M’oo and the Egyptian Sphinx" (1896) by Augustus Le Plongeon, (Marvel Universe) Namora#1/2 (August, 1948)

History: (Note: Text in italics is derived from the novel "The Isle of the Eons" by Robert E. Howard)

(Marvel Preview#19 - BTS) <Hundreds of thousands of years ago> - When the Serpent Men nation of Valusia was already ancient, the isles of the sea in the Western Ocean (modern Atlantic Ocean) and Eastern Ocean (modern Pacific Ocean) emerged from the watery depths, forming the mountainous peaks of the respective continents Atlantis and Mu. The continent of Mu apparently later partially submerged or had broken up, forming the smaller land masses of Mu, Lemuria and the Lemurian Isles.

(Scientific theory) <Tens of thousands of years ago> - The exodus of the human race out of Africa, which began circa 60,000 BC, guided the eventual migration of mankind to every continent upon Earth (except Antarctica, although the alien Nuwali had relocated humans to the Savage Land circa 200,000 BC). Among the continents inhabited by humankind is Mu, which eventually developed a civilization and culture during the Pre-Cataclysmic Age.

(Savage Sword of Conan#39/2 - BTS) <Tens of thousands of years ago> - The inhabitants of Mu constructed cities of crimson walls.

(The Isle of the Eons) <Tens of thousands of years ago> - During the Pre-Cataclysmic Age, the continent of Mu was populated by millions of humans in twenty cities, including its capital of Karath the Shining City. The humans primarily worshipped the sea god Poseidon, as well as numerous other gods including Hotath (god of war), Valka (god of fertility and growth), Zukala (disposer of souls), and the Moon-Woman and her sisters, the Star Maidens. The kings of Mu were overthrown by the usurper Nyulah, who had Na-hor, the City of the Crescent Moon, constructed upon the mountain of Valla. The worship of Xultha the Ape God supplanted that of Poseidon, and its high priest Nayah became powerful upon his study of ancient lore, dispatching his priests to establish shrines to the dark god in many lands, including the Atlantis, the Islands of the Seas, and the Seven Empires (but not Valusia). Nayah, dwelling in Na-hor, discovered the elixir of life, granting immortality to both himself and the bestial Xulthar, the last of the sons of Xultha.

(Conan the Barbarian I#71 (fb)) <Tens of thousands of years ago> - Astarta, the daughter of a king of Mu, was betrothed to the Sea-God worshipped by her people, so ancient and awesome that his worshippers have forgotten his very name. On the night of their wedding, a manifestation of the Sea-God granted Astarta life everlasting and then returned her home, where the now immortal Astarta found that she now outlived her loved ones.

(Kull the Conqueror I#1) <circa 18,500 BC> - The military forces of Valusia included the Red Slayers and the elite Black Legion, but their might was supplemented by mercenaries from other nations, including warriors from Mu and Kaa-U, and archers from Lemuria. Kull, the king of Valusia, led these forces on a procession through the City of Wonders.

(Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Deluxe Edition#7, Blockbusters of the Marvel Universe) <Between circa 18,500 BC to 18,000 BC> - Lemuria and Mu became dominated by the Deviant Empire, which conquered most of the human nations of the Earth in the centuries following the reign of Kull. The Deviants forced many of the conquered peoples to serve in armies to attack other human nations.

(Marvel Tales I#144 - BTS) <circa 18,000 BC> - Valron, an architect of Mu, had the city of Para-Diss constructed somewhere away from the Muvian continent. Para-Diss, a beautiful otherworldly city of marble and alabaster, was alive, capable of sustaining its populace and keeping them content with music, lights and other wonders.

(Blockbusters of the Marvel Universe) <circa 18,000 BC> - The Muvian people also allegedly constructed an undersea realm, which thousands of years later was the home to the people of Gigantus.

(Sub-Mariner I#62/2-63/2) <circa 18,000 BC> - The Deviant Empire launched a massive assault on Atlantis, the only remaining human civilization to resist their campaign of conquest. The human mercenaries of Mu commanded the naval assault while those from Lemuria attacked from the air. King Kamuu of Atlantis ordered the magma pits beneath the capital city opened to destroy the invaders, but this caused seismic upheavals.

(Eternals I#2 (fb), Incredible Hercules#123 (fb)) <circa 18,000 BC> - As Kamuu opened the magma pits, Atlantean sorcerers attempted to harness the power of the Axis Mundi, and the Celestial Second Host detonated a powerful nuclear weapon in Lemuria. These events and other factors contribute to the Great Cataclysm, causing severe tectonic upheavals across the Earth.

(Namora I#1/2 (fb), Conan the Barbarian I#71 (fb)) <circa 18,000 BC> - As the oceans swallowed Atlantis and Lemuria during the Great Cataclysm, the continent of Mu is also consumed, descending beneath the ocean waves of the Eastern Ocean.

(Namora I#1/2 (fb)) <circa 18,000 BC> - The war-like inhabitants of the continent of Mu were destroyed by earthquakes and tidal waves, but some of its inhabitants preserved a city, also named Mu, which was spared destruction as it was enclosed within a protective dome. The human culture within the domed city, led by a ruling council, eventually adapted to their lives within the submerged city.

(Conan the Barbarian I#71 (fb)) <circa 18,000 BC> - Despite the continent of Mu sinking beneath the ocean waves, Astarta was spared its destruction by her beloved Sea-God, who transported her to the island of Kelka in the Western Ocean. The inhabitants of the island, who claimed descent from the mainlanders of the Thurian continent, believed her to be their goddess Ashtoreth and began worshipping her, but the priests of Ashtoreth saw her as a threat to their authority and imprisoned her within a tower for millennia.

(Marvel Tales I#144 - BTS) <circa 18,000 BC> - With the coming of terrible earthquakes resulting from the Great Cataclysm, the architect Valron was forced to abandon the city of Para-Diss before anyone could live within it. The city was alive and remained alone for millennia.

(The Isle of the Eons) <circa 18,000 BC> - The city of Na-hor survived the submergence of Mu, as it was constructed upon the mountain of Valla, the mountain top becoming an island. Of the inhabitants of Na-hor, most stayed upon the isle for ages, ruled by a succession of kings and dwelling in ease and idleness, while others departed to abode on other islands and new continents hurled out of the ocean depths. The immortal priest Nayah and the bestial Xulthar remained upon the island for millennia.

(The Isle of the Eons) <Between circa 14,000 BC to 9500 BC> - During the
Hyborian Age, the people who had departed Na-hor for other lands were slaughtered by savages from the north, the Nordheimr. On the isle of Na-hor, after dwelling there for ages, the race of Mu eventually died off. The immortal priest Nayah, responsible for the sacrifice of the last children of Mu to the god Xultha, remained upon the island for centuries, alone with the bestial Xulthar, last son of the dark god. After an age the seas were filled with war fleets of Nordheimr barbarians. Their vessels were destroyed upon the reef surrounding the Na-hor and two surviving barbarians made their way to the island, but they were slain by Xulthar. After centuries, a second Nordheimr war fleet was again destroyed on the reef and another pair of barbarians escape to the isle. Nayah used sorcery to force them to kill one another, and he realized that throughout the ages, two reincarnated Nordheimr warriors will continue to return to Na-hor.

(Conan the Barbarian I#71) <circa 10,000 BC> - During the Hyborian Age, Conan and Bêlit encountered the immortal Astarta, imprisoned for millennia on the island of Kelka. Astarta told them of her origins and they freed her. After the death of Akkheba, the latest in the line of the priests of Ashtoreth who had imprisoned and tortured her, Astarta called upon her husband the Sea-God, who destroyed the island of Kelka with floods. Conan and Bêlit escaped to their vessel the Tigress, and Astarta was finally reunited with her husband after millennia.

(Historical) <1896> - After claiming he had translated ancient Mayan writings, archaeologist Augustus Le Plongeon forwarded his theory of the submerged continent of Mu in his book "Queen M’oo and the Egyptian Sphinx," determining the name "Mu" from an apparent mistranslation of the Troano Codex (one of the Maya codices, written records of Maya civilization) by Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg. The concept of Mu was later popularized and expanded upon by occult writer James Churchward with the book "Lost Continent of Mu, the Motherland of Man" (1926), "The Children of Mu" (1931) and "The Sacred Symbols of Mu" (1933).

(The Isle of the Eons) <1929> - The sea vessel Vagabond, several days out of Tahiti, was destroyed by a hurricane in the Pacific Ocean. The only survivors were two men, an American referred to as "Yank," and a man from the Netherlands known as the "Dutchman" or "Dutchy." After they were washed upon the shore of an island in the South Seas, both men discovered the remnants of an ancient civilization, but found themselves hunted. The Dutchman, an explorer taught by his mentor, Professor von Kaelmann, how to decipher the dead language of Mu, discovered from hieroglyphs and ancient writings that they were upon the isle of Na-hor. Yank and the Dutchman realized that in prior incarnations during the Hyborian Age, they had been Nordheimr barbarians who had come to this land to be slain by the priest Nayah or the bestial Xulthar, both made immortal by elixir of life. The two men, both of Nordheimr (and later Germanic) descent, resolved to recover the elixir of life and destroy Nayah and Xulthar.

(Namora I#1/2) <1948> - The high priest
Karlak of the domed underwater city of Mu in the Pacific Ocean convinced the ruling council to allow him to lead an attack against the surface world. After a failed attempt to abduct Namor the Sub-Mariner and Namora, Karlak later led Muvian soldiers in an attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, but they were forced to retreat by Sub-Mariner, Namora and the American military. Karlak and his forces retreated back to their underwater city, but Sub-Mariner and Namora pursued them, and as Namor confronted him before the ruling council, Karlak was slain by an accidental discharge of his electric gun.

(Journey Into Mystery I#63 - BTS) - At some period prior to the mid-twentieth century, part of the submerged continent of Mu became inhabited by a race of gigantic creatures (of which Gigantus was one of). Dwelling within an underwater city ruled by a monarch, these creatures, who are five hundred feet tall and number in the thousands, claimed to have once lived on the surface, but it is possible that they were actually mutates created by the Deviants.

(Marvel Tales I#144) <1955> - Joe and Andy were a pair of fishermen on a holiday miles from civilization. They came across the otherworldly city of Para-Diss, constructed by Muvian architect Valron, but abandoned for millennia after the Great Cataclysm. The fishermen discovered the city seemed to be alive, and it cared for them for several days, keeping them entertained and contented. However, the pair decided to return to their lives in the outside world, and the city of Para-Diss, broken-hearted, crumbled into dust as they departed.

(Marvel Universe#7) <1956> - The Monster Hunters (Ulysses Bloodstone, Doctor Druid, Zawadi) tracked the Eternal Makkari, abducted by the Deviant Kro, to Monster Island. The monster
Gigantus, one of the race of gigantic creatures dwelling within their submerged city on Mu, rose from the ocean waves to intercept them. Bloodstone used their aircraft’s engines to scorch Gigantus, who subsequently returned to the oceans depths.

(Journey Into Mystery I#63 (fb)) <1960> - The monarch of the submerged city of gigantic creatures dwelling on Mu underneath the Pacific Ocean ordered Gigantus to venture to the surface world to herald the coming of their conquering race.

(Journey Into Mystery I#63) <1960> - Gigantus arrived off the Atlantic coast and informed humanity that his race intended to conquer the surface world. He was confronted by the even more massive alien "Ulvar," who claimed that his race too intended to conquer the Earth. The outmatched Gigantus fled back to Mu, unaware that Ulvar was actually a prop constructed by special effects man Mr. Baxter.

(Fantastic Four I#347 - BTS) - <The Modern Age> Sometime after his retreat from Ulvar, Gigantus became one of the monsters under the dominion of the Mole Man (perhaps due to his failure to conquer the world for his race).

Comments: Created by Augustus Le Plongeon; originally adapted for the Marvel Universe by artist Syd Shores and an unknown writer.

The concept and name of Mu was proposed by archaeologist and writer Augustus Le Plongeon (1825-1908), who claimed that Mu was a hypothetical continent that submerged beneath the Atlantic Ocean before recorded history. Engineer and occult writer James Churchward (1851-1936) later expanded upon Le Plongeon’s concept of Mu, asserting that the continent was actually located in the Pacific Ocean. Le Plongeon and Churchward both claimed that Mu was inhabited by an ancient people named the Naacal, and that Naacal refugees founded the ancient Babylonian, Egyptian, Indian, Mayan and Persian civilizations.

Kull tells Karon the Ferryman in Marvel Preview#19 that "Valusia was old when the peaks of Atlantis and ancient Mu were but the isles of the sea... the land I now rule was once lorded over the the terrible Serpent-Men." Thus Atlantis and Mu arose from the ocean depths sometime after the Serpent Men were created by Sligguth "approximately 1 million years BC" (Marvel Zombies: The Book of Angels, Demons, & Various Monstrosities: Set). Lemuria was depicted on a map as part of the "pre-cataclysmic continent of Mu" (Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe: Deluxe Edition#7: Lemuria), and "in the distant past, it was part of the continent Mu" (Marvel Atlas#1: Lemuria (Deviant)). Thongor dwelled in prehistoric Lemuria "half a million years ago" (Creatures on the Loose#24). Therefore, Atlantis, Mu and Lemuria arose sometime between one million to five hundred thousand years ago.

The scientific theory of human evolution argues that the human race (homo sapiens) first appeared in Africa circa 200,000 BC, and that migration out of Africa began circa 60,000 BC, as humans ventured across Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and South America over the following tens of thousands of years. Upon Earth-616, this presumably also includes Atlantis, Lemuria and Mu, and humans were also relocated to the Savage Land before the Nuwali departed in "200,000 BC" (Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A To Z#10). Human origins are expanded upon in Uncanny X-Men Annual II#1, which establishes the human race was spawned in a valley in Kenya, wherein dwells the matrilineal family line of Storm (Ororo Iqadi T’Challa, née Munroe). Other sources that claim responsibility for the creation of humanity are the Fortisquians (Fantastic Four I#316), the Xorri (Thor I#215), and numerous pantheons of gods.

Conan and Bêlit encounter Astarta in Conan the Barbarian I#71 during the Hyborian Age circa 10,000 BC. Exactly when Astarta became immortal is unrevealed, but must be at least several decades before the Great Cataclysm, as she mentioned that "my once-playmates grew old and grey and withered about me."

Mu was stated to have sunk "ten thousand years ago" in Namora I#1/2, but the actual date of the Great Cataclysm was circa 18,000 BC. Para-Diss was abandoned "thousands of years ago" in Marvel Tales I #144.

There were no dates given for some of the stories occurring with the twentieth century, so they were placed during the actual year of publication in Namora I#1/2 (1948), Marvel Tales I#144 (1955) and Journey Into Mystery I#63 (1960). The year the Monster Hunters encountered Gigantus was unrevealed in Marvel Universe#7, but is established as 1956 in Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe: Fantastic Four 2005: Mole Man.

During the original publication of Journey Into Mystery I#63, the creature was named "Goliath" and came from Atlantis; with the reprint in Where Monsters Dwell#10, the creature was renamed "Gigantus" (a name retained during later appearances) and was from Mu, but ironically he still appeared "off the Atlantic coast." The origin of Gigantus’ race is unrevealed, but in Journey Into Mystery I#63 the monarch stated that "for now we have decided to come to the surface... to conquer the land and live on it as our ancestors did"; it is possible they were remnants of an ancient race that dwelled on Pre-Cataclysmic Mu, or perhaps were among the mutates created by the Deviants.

Numerous references to Mu in the Marvel Universe are adapted from stories by Robert E. Howard (REH), including the Kull stories "The Shadow Kingdom" (Kull the Conqueror I#1-2) and "Riders Beyond the Sunrise," (Marvel Preview#19) which was co-written by Lin Carter, and the Solomon Kane story "The Moon of Skulls" (Savage Sword of Conan#34/2, #37/2, #39/2). "Marchers of Valhalla" was freely adapted into a Conan story in Conan the Barbarian I#70-71, but the original story was not set in Mu.

The mercenary forces were described in Kull the Conqueror I#1 as "the motley files of the mercenaries -- fierce, wild-looking men who salute no man or god." This comic is an adaptation of "The Shadow Kingdom" by REH, in which they were originally described as "the motley files of the mercenaries, fierce, wild-looking warriors, men of Mu and of Kaa-u and of the hills of the east and the isles of the west" and "they bore spears and heavy swords, and a compact group that marched somewhat apart were the bowmen of Lemuria." Note that Kaa-u was mentioned by REH only once, in his story "The Shadow Kingdom." The name is later used in Marvel Premiere#5 as the location of the death of the Ancient One, within the Crypts of Kaa-U, Tibet. During the Pre-Cataclysmic Age, the land of Kaa-U, corresponding to modern Tibet, may geographically be located in the eastern land of Grondar on the Thurian continent.

"A Gazetteer of the Hyborian Age, Part V" (Savage Sword of Conan#36) describes Mu:
    "MU - a land of Pre-Cataclysmic times. As yet, nothing of it has been revealed in the Saga except its name."

"Atlantis and Lemuria and Mu" are briefly mentioned by the narrator in Savage Sword of Conan#219/2 (1994), but are not depicted.


Text in italics is derived from the
incomplete novel "The Isle of the Eons" written by Robert E. Howard (REH), but is not necessarily canon within the Marvel Universe. However, as numerous Conan/Kull/Solomon Kane elements are within the Marvel Universe, and this story does not conflict with any established events, I have chosen to include its use. REH developed an outline and wrote five drafts between 1925 to 1929. The story first saw print in "The Gods of Bal-Sagoth" (1979), and later in "The Dark Man: The Journal of Robert E. Howard Studies v3#1" (2006). Numerous gods of Mu referred to in "The Isle of the Eons" are depicted or named in the Marvel Universe; Hotath was first mentioned in Kull the Conqueror I#1, the Moon-Woman (as the Woman in the Moon) was first mentioned in Kull the Conqueror I #1 and first appeared in Kull the Destroyer#16, Poseidon (Neptune) first appeared in Kid Komics#1, Valka was first mentioned in Creatures on the Loose#10, and Zukala first appeared in Conan the Barbarian I #5.

The events of "The Isle of the Eons" occur during the twentieth century (as no date was provided, we used the contemporary year of 1929, although one draft instead depicted Yank and the Dutchman as survivors of sunken American and German ships respectively during World War I), and the events of the prehistoric past are translated from hieroglyphs and an ancient scroll, describing the ancient continent of Mu both before and after the Great Cataclysm (established in Marvel Comics as circa 18,000 BC). The events prior to the Great Cataclysm, tens of thousands of years ago, were also before the reign of Kull circa 18,500 BC, due to references to "ancient Valusia where men bowed to the Serpents," "the heathen land of Atlantis," and Mu possessing "a great civilization when the Atlanteans were still savages." The origin of the "savages... from the north" and "the northern barbarians" that assaulted the isle of Na-hor remain unrevealed, but as the Dutchman was described as being of Germanic descent ("like many Germans and Dutchmen, he was practically hairless"), and Nayah wrote "the curse of Xultha is upon them and upon their tribe" (referring to the northern barbarians), it is apparent that Yank, the Dutchman and their barbarian predecessors are of Nordheimer (later Germanic) descent; the Nordheimer (the Hyborian era Aesir and Vanir) first appeared during the Hyborian Age, which is established as circa 14,000-9500 BC in the essay
"The Hyborian Age" by Roy Thomas (adapted from the more extensive version of "The Hyborian Age" by Robert Howard), depicted in Savage Sword of Conan#7-8, #12, #15-17.

The continent of Mu has also been referenced in the Cthulhu Mythos, notably within the short story "Out of the Aeons" (1935) was written by Hazel Heald and revised by Howard Philip Lovecraft, and the series of short stories of the Xothic legend cycle written by Lin Carter: "The Dweller in the Tomb" (1971), "Out of the Ages" (1975), "The Horror in the Gallery" (1976), "The Thing in the Pit" (1980), and "The Winfield Heritance" (1981).  Often elements of the Cthulhu Mythos have appeared within the Marvel Universe.


The geographical location of the continent of Mu has been shown twice. The first map (Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe: Deluxe Edition#7: Lemuria) is probably the most accurate image, the clear dotted line depicting the coastline of the "pre-cataclysmic continent of Mu" prior to the Great Cataclysm. The purple dotted lines depict the borders of the modern territories of "homo mermanus Lemuria" and "Deviant Lemuria," but it should be noted that these territorial borders are markedly different in Marvel Atlas#1. The second map (Namora#1/2) was viewed by Karlak, who stated "these ancient maps show the position of the nearest land mass to our island," referring to the islands of Hawaii.

The geophysical history of Earth-616 probably parallels that of the real world, also called Earth-1218 (New Exiles#1) or Earth-Prime (Flash v1#179 from
DC Comics), albeit with modifications necessary to accommodate Marvel Earth’s parallel history. The first supercontinent Vaalbara arose from the prehistoric oceans circa 3.6 billion BC (not to be confused with the landmass that formed from the molten crust when the Creator hurled his staff into the Earth in Strange Tales IV#2). This continent eventually broke apart and new land masses emerged and submerged back into the oceans as tectonic plates shifted, forming a succession of new continents over the following billions of years. The most recent supercontinent Pangaea (not to be confused with Pangea of the Savage Land) began to break up circa 180 million BC, with the modern continents gradually shifting to their modern locations, but the continents of Atlantis and Lemuria and Mu remained unseen beneath the watery depths as the other continents shifted (Adventures of the X-Men #12). The continental drift of Earth-616 diverged from that of the real world some hundreds of thousands of years ago, which caused Atlantis, Lemuria and Mu to arise from the ocean waves (Marvel Preview#19), which may have also caused geophysical alterations to the cartography of Eurasia (Thuria) and partially submerged North America (Pictish Isles) during the Pre-Cataclysmic Age. Antarctica (Pangea) was also known to the Atlanteans during the late Pre-Cataclysmic Age (Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe#1). The geographical status of Africa, Australia and South America during the Pre-Cataclysmic Age has not yet been confirmed, but they probably remained unsubmerged to account for the modern existence of indigenous life and the migration of humankind. The enigmatic Nameless Continent located east of Thuria, the homeland of the "East Folk" (later the Stygians), has been referred to on maps (Kull the Conqueror I#2, Savage Sword of Conan#7/2), but its specific location is unknown, and a "mythic continent" located south of Thuria has also been mentioned (Kull the Conqueror I#5). After the Great Cataclysm circa 18,000 BC, Atlantis, Lemuria and Mu returned to the depths, while the cartography of the world was again radically altered. During the Hyborian Age, Conan dwelled mainly in the lands of Eurasia (Thuria) and Africa (Kush), but during his adventures he had also visited each of the other known continents, including Antarctica (the Frozen Land; Conan the Savage#2/2-4/2), Australia (the Unknown Land; Savage Sword of Conan#190-193), North America (Novum Terra; Savage Sword of Conan#167-168, Conan of the Isles, Conan the Savage#10) and South America (Terra Incognita; Savage Sword of Conan#166). After the Post-Hyborian Cataclysm circa 9500 BC, the remaining continents appear to have settled into their recognizable modern configuration, with only the occasional variation such as the brief rising of Atlantis (Namor the Sub-Mariner#62).

Profile by Wolfram Bane.

CLARIFICATIONS:
Mu has no known connections to


images:
Namora I#1/2, p2, panel 1
Namora I#1/2, p2, panel 3
Conan the Barbarian I#71, p11, panel 3
Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe: Deluxe Edition#7, p26, panel 1
Namora I#1/2, p5, panel 7


Other Appearances:
Namora#1/2 (August, 1948) - Syd Shores (penciler, inker)
Marvel Tales I#144 (March, 1956) - Stan Lee? (writer), Al Williamson and Roy G. Krenkel (pencilers, inkers)
Journey Into Mystery I#63 (December, 1960) - Jack Kirby (penciler), Steve Ditko (inker)
Kull the Conqueror I#1 (June, 1971) - Roy Thomas (writer), Ross Andru (penciler), Wally Wood (inker), Samuel Rosen (letterer), Marie Severin (colorist), Stan Lee (editor)
Where Monsters Dwell#10 (July, 1971) - Jack Kirby (penciler), Steve Ditko (inker)
Sub-Mariner I#62/2 (June, 1973) - Howard Chaykin (writer, penciler), Steve Gerber (writer), Joe Sinnott (inker), John Costanza (letterer)
Sub-Mariner I#63/2 (July, 1973) - Bill Everett (writer), Steve Gerber (writer), Joe Sinnott (inker), Howard Chaykin (penciler), John Costanza (letterer)
Eternals I#2 (August, 1976) - Jack Kirby (writer, penciler, editor), John Verpoorten (inker), John Costanza (letterer), Glynis Wein (colorist), Marv Wolfman (consulting editor)
Conan the Barbarian I#71 (February, 1977) - Roy Thomas (writer, editor), John Buscema (penciler), Ernie Chan (inker), John Costanza (letterer), Michele Wolfman (colorist)
Savage Sword of Conan#39/2 (April, 1979) - Don Glut (writer), David Wenzel (penciler, inker)
Marvel Preview#19 (Summer, 1979) - Roy Thomas (writer), Sal Buscema (penciler), Antony De Zuniga (inker)
Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe: Deluxe Edition#7 (June, 1986) - Mark Gruenwald, Peter Sanderson and others (writers)
Fantastic Four I#347 (December, 1990) - Walter Simonson (writer), Arthur Adams (penciler), Art Thibert (inker), Ralph Macchio (editor), Steve Buccellato (colorist), Bill Oakley (letterer)
Marvel Universe#7 (December, 1998) - Roger Stern (writer), Jason Armstrong (penciler), Mike Manley (inker), James Novak (letterer), Gloria Vasquez (colorist), Tom Brevoort (editor)
Marvel Atlas#1 (January, 2008) - Anthony Flamini, Michael Hoskin, Eric J. Moreel, Stuart Vandal and others (writers)
Incredible Hercules#123 (January, 2009) - Greg Pak and Fred Van Lente (writers), Clayton Henry (penciler), Salvador Espin (inker), Joe Caramagna (letterer)
Blockbusters of the Marvel Universe (March, 2011) - Jeff Christiansen, Mike O’Sullivan and others (writers)


Any Additions/Corrections? please let me know.

Last Updated: 12/11/11

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